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Simpson’s Paradox

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[New Entry by Jan Sprenger and Naftali Weinberger on March 24, 2021.] Simpson's Paradox is a statistical phenomenon where an association between two variables in a population emerges, disappears or reverses when the population is divided into subpopulations. For instance, two variables may be positively associated in a population, but be independent or even negatively associated in all subpopulations. Cases exhibiting the paradox are unproblematic from the perspective of mathematics and probability theory, but nevertheless strike many people as surprising. Additionally, the...

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News source: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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