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[Revised entry by Sun-Joo Shin, Oliver Lemon, and John Mumma on December 13, 2018. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html] All of us engage in and make use of valid reasoning, but the reasoning we actually perform differs in various ways from the inferences studied by most (formal) logicians. Reasoning as performed by human beings typically involves information obtained through more than one medium. Formal logic, by contrast, has thus far been primarily concerned with valid reasoning which is based on information in one form only, i.e., in the form of sentences. Recently, many philosophers, psychologists, logicians, mathematicians, and computer...

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News source: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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