Justification Logic

[Revised entry by Sergei Artemov and Melvin Fitting on November 20, 2015. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html, supplement.html] You may say, "I know that Abraham Lincoln was a tall
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[Revised entry by Sergei Artemov and Melvin Fitting on November 20, 2015. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html, supplement.html] You may say, "I know that Abraham Lincoln was a tall man. " In turn you may be asked how you know. You would almost certainly not reply semantically, Hintikka-style, that Abraham Lincoln was tall in all situations compatible with your knowledge. Instead you would more likely say, "I read about Abraham Lincoln's height in several books, and I have seen photographs of him next to other people. " One certifies knowledge by providing a...

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News source: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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