The Biological Notion of Self and Non-self

[Revised entry by Alfred Tauber on May 21, 2015. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Fundamental to biology are (1) defining the characteristics of identity, which distinguish individual
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[Revised entry by Alfred Tauber on May 21, 2015. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Fundamental to biology are (1) defining the characteristics of identity, which distinguish individual organisms from those of similar kind, and (2) describing the mechanisms that defend organisms from their predators. Immunology is the science devoted to these problems. A progeny of late 19th-century microbiology and the clinical discipline of infectious diseases, immunology did not attain a formal theoretical construction until after World War II, when "the self" was introduced as the conceptual foundation of a new theory of immunity. In...

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News source: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Johannes Kepler

[Revised entry by Daniel A. Di Liscia on May 21, 2015. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630) is one of the most significant representatives of the so-called Scientific
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[Revised entry by Daniel A. Di Liscia on May 21, 2015. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630) is one of the most significant representatives of the so-called Scientific Revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries. Although he received only the basic training of a "magister" and was professionally oriented towards theology at the beginning of his career, he rapidly became known for his mathematical skills and theoretical creativity. As a convinced Copernican, Kepler was able to...

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News source: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Varieties of Logic

2015.05.19 : View this Review Online | View Recent NDPR Reviews Stewart Shapiro, Varieties of Logic, Oxford University Press, 2014, 226pp., $65.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780199696529. Reviewed by
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2015.05.19 : View this Review Online | View Recent NDPR Reviews Stewart Shapiro, Varieties of Logic, Oxford University Press, 2014, 226pp., $65.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780199696529. Reviewed by Shawn Standefer, Auburn University 19 In this book, Stewart Shapiro develops a new kind of logical pluralism, one that embraces a kind of relativism about logical consequence and that accepts classically inconsistent theories that other views reject. It is a rich book, which, apart from contributions to logical pluralism, makes connections between the philosophy of logic, philosophy of language, philosophy of math, and epistemology. I will briefly summarize the contents before situating Shapiro's pluralism with respect to another kind of logical pluralism and presenting some criticisms and comments. The first chapter explores and settles many terminological issues surrounding relativism and pluralism. The kind of relativism with which Shapiro is concerned is folk-relativism, adapted from. . .

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News source: Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // News

Classify and Label: The Unintended Marginalization of Social Groups

2015.05.18 : View this Review Online | View Recent NDPR Reviews Matt L. Drabek, Classify and Label: The Unintended Marginalization of Social Groups, Lexington Books, 2014, 146pp., $80.00 (hbk),
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2015.05.18 : View this Review Online | View Recent NDPR Reviews Matt L. Drabek, Classify and Label: The Unintended Marginalization of Social Groups, Lexington Books, 2014, 146pp., $80.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780739179758. Reviewed by Saray Ayala, San Francisco State University The aim of Matt Drabek's book is to show that classifying activities and people can contribute to the marginalization of social groups. In the introduction the author promises to analyze the classificatory practices that we engage in both in our everyday conversations and in the professional practice of science, especially social science. In particular, he aims to provide an analysis of the interaction that occurs between the classification and the classified (i.e., how people change as an effect of classification, and how the classificatory practices change as an effect of people's reactions to them). The book begins by considering the classification of activities, and how this can bring about. . .

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News source: Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // News

Son of a Florentine sculptor, the precocious <strong>Bernini</strong>, aged 20, set himself a modest challenge: Carve the human soul in marble

Son of a Florentine sculptor, the precocious Bernini, aged 20, set himself a modest challenge: Carve the human soul in
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Son of a Florentine sculptor, the precocious Bernini, aged 20, set himself a modest challenge: Carve the human soul in marble

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News source: Arts & Letters Daily

An <strong>orgy of self-fashioning</strong>. To become Tristan Tzara, Samuel Rosenstock left Romania, performed cabaret, and took up public relations

An orgy of self-fashioning. To become Tristan Tzara, Samuel Rosenstock left Romania, performed cabaret, and took up public
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An orgy of self-fashioning. To become Tristan Tzara, Samuel Rosenstock left Romania, performed cabaret, and took up public relations

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News source: Arts & Letters Daily

Fraternities once espoused ideals of intelligence, social grace, morality. Then came a <strong>new view of manliness</strong>, tied to drinking and sexual prowess

Fraternities once espoused ideals of intelligence, social grace, morality. Then came a new view of manliness, tied to drinking and sexual
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Fraternities once espoused ideals of intelligence, social grace, morality. Then came a new view of manliness, tied to drinking and sexual prowess

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News source: Arts & Letters Daily

Antony Beevor writes about <strong>how people kill</strong> one another in war. But &ldquo;there are things that you can&rsquo;t put in a book because they are too horrific&rdquo;

Antony Beevor writes about how people kill one another in war. But &amp;ldquo;there are things that you can&amp;rsquo;t put in a book because they are too
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Antony Beevor writes about how people kill one another in war. But “there are things that you can’t put in a book because they are too horrific”

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News source: Arts & Letters Daily

The importance of <strong>getting paid</strong>. "One should never forget the role money plays in shaping the writer's life, and the life inevitably informs the work"

The importance of getting paid. &quot;One should never forget the role money plays in shaping the writer&#39;s life, and the life inevitably informs the
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The importance of getting paid. "One should never forget the role money plays in shaping the writer's life, and the life inevitably informs the work"

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News source: Arts & Letters Daily

<strong>Helen Vendler</strong>, 82, has seen theories of literature come and go. She's immune to doctrines of taste, stubbornly idiosyncratic and unsystematic

Helen Vendler, 82, has seen theories of literature come and go. She&#39;s immune to doctrines of taste, stubbornly idiosyncratic and
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Helen Vendler, 82, has seen theories of literature come and go. She's immune to doctrines of taste, stubbornly idiosyncratic and unsystematic

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News source: Arts & Letters Daily