A few more of our shortest words: “if,” “of,” and “both”

The post of 21 June 2017 on the “dwarfs of our vocabulary” was received so well that I decided to return to them in the hope that the continuation will not disappoint our readers. Those dwarfs have
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The post of 21 June 2017 on the “dwarfs of our vocabulary” was received so well that I decided to return to them in the hope that the continuation will not disappoint our readers. Those dwarfs have a long history and have been the object of several tall tales. If Like most subordinate conjunctions, if conveys a rather abstract meaning. Its bulky, bookish synonyms provided (that) and in case of have little virtue. Sometimes it is possible to do without if by inverting the word order, as in “were I (had I been) there…,” “should you ever meet him…” and so forth, but in most cases, when we want to introduce a conditional clause, we say if. The word has a respectable ancestry. Thus, in Old English, we find gif with the puzzling initial g-, pronounced as Modern Engl. y– in yes.  (Although this additional y- was not restricted to the conjunction, its appearance is always a riddle.) All “dwarfs” tended to interact with their likes as regards both meaning and pronunciation. For. . .

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News source: Linguistics – OUPblog

Postdoc position (‘wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin’, comparable to an assistant professorship)

Job List:  Europe Name of institution:  Duisburg-Essen
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Job List: 
Europe
Name of institution: 
Duisburg-Essen University
Town: 
Essen
Country: 
Germany
. . .

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News source: Jobs In Philosophy

First the yuppie, then the hipster, now the &ldquo;<strong>aspirational class</strong>.&rdquo; These people consume conscientiously &mdash; and have no intention of relinquishing their status

First the yuppie, then the hipster, now the &amp;ldquo;aspirational class.&amp;rdquo; These people consume conscientiously &amp;mdash; and have no intention of relinquishing their
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First the yuppie, then the hipster, now the “aspirational class.” These people consume conscientiously — and have no intention of relinquishing their status

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News source: Arts & Letters Daily

Beware a <strong>biography of Faulkner </strong>that gets mired in source hunting. Don't just explain how his work works. Show why the man wrote as he did

Beware a biography of Faulkner that gets mired in source hunting. Don&#39;t just explain how his work works. Show why the man wrote as he
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Beware a biography of Faulkner that gets mired in source hunting. Don't just explain how his work works. Show why the man wrote as he did

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News source: Arts & Letters Daily

<strong>Claude Shannon </strong>was a poet, juggler, unicyclist, machinist, futurist, and gambler who wrote &ldquo;the Magna Carta of the Information Age&rdquo;

Claude Shannon was a poet, juggler, unicyclist, machinist, futurist, and gambler who wrote &amp;ldquo;the Magna Carta of the Information
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Claude Shannon was a poet, juggler, unicyclist, machinist, futurist, and gambler who wrote “the Magna Carta of the Information Age”

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News source: Arts & Letters Daily

Philosophical and Scientific Perspectives on Downward Causation

2017.08.01 : View this Review Online | View Recent NDPR Reviews Michele Paolini Paoletti and Francesco Orilia (eds.), Philosophical and Scientific Perspectives on Downward Causation, Routledge,
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2017.08.01 : View this Review Online | View Recent NDPR Reviews Michele Paolini Paoletti and Francesco Orilia (eds.), Philosophical and Scientific Perspectives on Downward Causation, Routledge, 2017, 333pp., $140 (hbk), ISBN 9781138195059. Reviewed by Stuart Glennan, Butler University Much has been written in the past twenty-five years on the topic of downward causation -- enough that one might wonder if we need another volume devoted to the topic. But Paolini Paoletti's and Orilia's anthology, comprising eighteen chapters from European and American metaphysicians, philosophers of mind, philosophers of science, and scientists, offers a good sense of where things stand together with some interesting suggestions on how to move forward. The book is divided into three parts -- "Downward Causation and the Metaphysics of Causation," "Downward Causation and the Sciences," and "Downward Causation, Mind and Agency." The divisions are somewhat arbitrary; for instance, issues of. . .

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News source: Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // News

John Cheever's favorite word was "venereal." Isaac Asimov's was "terminus." Such insights come from <strong>exposing language to mathematics</strong>.&nbsp;

John Cheever&#39;s favorite word was &quot;venereal.&quot; Isaac Asimov&#39;s was &quot;terminus.&quot; Such insights come from exposing language to
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John Cheever's favorite word was "venereal." Isaac Asimov's was "terminus." Such insights come from exposing language to mathematics. 

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News source: Arts & Letters Daily

Plato

[Revised entry by Richard Kraut on August 1, 2017. Changes to: Bibliography] Plato (429? - 347 B.C.E.) is, by any reckoning, one of the most dazzling writers in the Western literary tradition and
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[Revised entry by Richard Kraut on August 1, 2017. Changes to: Bibliography] Plato (429? - 347 B.C.E.) is, by any reckoning, one of the most dazzling writers in the Western literary tradition and one of the most penetrating, wide-ranging, and influential authors in the history of philosophy. An Athenian citizen of high status, he displays in his works his absorption in the political events and intellectual movements of his time, but the questions he raises are so profound and the strategies he uses for tackling them so richly suggestive and...

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News source: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The ancient Greeks had <strong>color words</strong> for &ldquo;pansy-like&rdquo; and &ldquo;wine-like,&rdquo; but never sea or sky blue. Can we understand their descriptions if we can&rsquo;t see as they did?

The ancient Greeks had color words for &amp;ldquo;pansy-like&amp;rdquo; and &amp;ldquo;wine-like,&amp;rdquo; but never sea or sky blue. Can we understand their descriptions if we can&amp;rsquo;t see as they
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The ancient Greeks had color words for “pansy-like” and “wine-like,” but never sea or sky blue. Can we understand their descriptions if we can’t see as they did?

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News source: Arts & Letters Daily

<strong>Critics of criticism</strong>. When did the only sophisticated stance on a cultural object become distance, deflation, and diagnosis?

Critics of criticism. When did the only sophisticated stance on a cultural object become distance, deflation, and
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Critics of criticism. When did the only sophisticated stance on a cultural object become distance, deflation, and diagnosis?

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News source: Arts & Letters Daily