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Substructural Logics

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[Revised entry by Greg Restall on February 21, 2018. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Substructural logics are non-classical logics weaker than classical logic, notable for the absence of structural rules present in classical logic. These logics are motivated by considerations from philosophy (relevant logics), linguistics (the Lambek calculus) and computing (linear logic). In addition, techniques from substructural logics are useful in the study of traditional logics such as classical and intuitionistic logic. This article...

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News source: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

On our craving for generality

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Ludwig Wittgenstein, in his Blue Book, chastised philosophers for what he called “our craving for generality.” Philosophers (including the earlier Wittgenstein of the Tractatus) certainly have exhibited this craving, and despite his admonishment, we continue to do so. Philosophers seek general accounts of the nature of propositions, properties, virtues, mental states–you name it. Wittgenstein portrays the craving for generality as a kind of philosophical sin, but it is not that. First, it is hardly confined to philosophy–scientists crave generality, as do humans generally. Second, it can’t really be a sin–or at least an unpardonable sin–for without knowing anything general, we cannot succeed in understanding or acting in the world. But sinful or not, the craving can be dangerous, because the world often does not cooperate with our generalizations. The crux of our predicament is this: nature is heterogeneous and particular, but epistemic and practical needs require us to generalize. To. . .

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News source: OUPblog » Philosophy

Conversations on Art and Aesthetics

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2018.02.20 : View this Review Online | View Recent NDPR Reviews Hans Maes, Conversations on Art and Aesthetics, Oxford University Press, 2017, 336 pp., $40.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780199686100. Reviewed by Andrew Huddleston, Birkbeck College, University of London For better or for worse, contemporary philosophy of art, like most every philosophical sub-discipline, is dominated by the academic journal article and the scholarly monograph as the main media of publication. This book marks an interesting change. Following and adapting the format of a similar volume relating to ethics, this book offers ten discussions, led by Hans Maes, with distinguished figures in the field. Although the dialogue form has a long philosophical history, many of the most famous examples in the canon are not actually conversations, in any full-blooded sense. They are scripted exchanges written by a single author. And, however philosophically insightful, they are often poor examples of even a fictional. . .

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News source: Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // News

Heidegger's Black Notebooks: Responses to Anti-Semitism

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2018.02.19 : View this Review Online | View Recent NDPR Reviews Andrew J. Mitchell and Peter Trawny (eds.), Heidegger's Black Notebooks: Responses to Anti-Semitism, Columbia University Press, 2017, 245 pp, $30.00 (pbk), ISBN 9780231180443. Reviewed by Charles Bambach, University of Texas at Dallas What are we to do with Heidegger? The philosopher who has dominated continental thinking for the last century stands under yet another cloud of suspicion, alarm, outrage, shock, and censure. The reports came first in a torrent: from newspapers, periodicals, online forums, followed by quickly convened international conferences, YouTube videos, and now, scholarly publications. That such a crisis would come -- unbidden or no -- was inevitable. But the history of such crises helps to provide some context. Immediately after the Second World War, Karl Löwith published an article in Les temps modernes (1946) linking Heidegger to Nazism; in 1962, after German publishers refused to. . .

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News source: Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // News

A Dark History of Modern Philosophy

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2018.02.18 : View this Review Online | View Recent NDPR Reviews Bernard Freydberg, A Dark History of Modern Philosophy, Indiana University Press, 2017, 146pp., $25.00 (pbk), ISBN 9780253029461.   Reviewed by Brad Frazier, Wells College The title of this book could be taken many ways. It could denote a history of modern philosophy in the tradition of Susan Neiman's excellent work, Evil in Modern Thought: An Alternative History of Philosophy. On Neiman's alternative approach, theodicy displaces epistemology as the ultimate concern of the modern period. However, Freydberg departs from the traditional approach in a different way. He seeks to uncover an underlying, unacknowledged chaos or "primal lack" to which all the so-called rationalists and empiricists respond, with differing levels of awareness of what they are doing. He considers the epistemic-centric reading of modern philosophy to be "so obvious" that it has "long provoked an uneasy discomposure" in him (1). It. . .

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News source: Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // News

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