Is Tolerance Self-Undermining?

In light of all of the hullaballoo surrounding Brendan Eich’s resignation from Mozilla for his political views regarding same sex marriage, I have been musing over the meaning and practice of “tolerance”.  In the name of “tolerance”, Eich was pressured to resign because he is supposedly intolerant of same sex marriage.  However, supporters of Eich contend that this is just being intolerant in a different way, by refusing to tolerate Eich’s political beliefs.

Who is right?  In some ways, I think neither is, because the notion of “tolerance” seems to be self-contradictory, or at least, self-undermining.  Here is a brief sketch of an argument that illustrates my musings.

Tolerance (from dictionary.com): “a fair, objective, and permissive attitude toward opinions and practices that differ from one's own.”

  1. Suppose person A believes in the ideal of tolerance.  Then person A believes in holding a "permissive attitude toward opinions and practices that differ from one's own."  Ideally, this applies to all opinions and practices.
  2. Suppose person B does not believe in the ideal of tolerance.  Then person B does not believe in holding a "permissive attitude toward opinions and practices that differ from one's own."  There are some opinions and practices that one ought not to hold a permissive attitude towards.  One such opinion is upholding the ideal of tolerance.
  3. If person A is to uphold the ideal of tolerance, then person A must believe in holding a permissive attitude towards person B's belief that one must not hold a permissive attitude towards all opinions and practices.  That is, person A must believe in tolerating person B's belief in not tolerating person A's belief in tolerance.
  4. Therefore, person A must tolerate a belief in intolerance; person A must be permissive towards impermissive attitudes towards being permissive.
  5. Person A cannot really say anything or act against person B's intolerance, since person A must tolerate that intolerance.  Person A essentially forfeits any real ability to counter person B's opinions and practices. 
  6. Person B can (if he or she wishes) seize upon that opportunity and strike against the ideal of tolerance or any other disagreeable view person A has (since person B doesn't believe in tolerance). 
  7. In order to combat this, Person A must resist such intolerance towards tolerance.  But in so doing, person A must become intolerant towards intolerance. 
  8. But then tolerance has had to undermine itself in order to preserve itself. 

Consequently, it appears that one cannot truly uphold the ideal of tolerance.  One must be intolerant of intolerance if tolerance is to survive.  But then tolerance has not survived, since one has used intolerance to preserve tolerance.  Thus, either way, the ideal of tolerance is destroyed.

In short, one cannot hold a permissive attitude towards all opinions and practices.  One must be intolerant of some beliefs if one is have any beliefs at all.

Consider the case at hand.  Mozilla recently posted, “Our organizational culture reflects diversity and inclusiveness. We welcome contributions from everyone regardless of age, culture, ethnicity, gender, gender-identity, language, race, sexual orientation, geographical location and religious views. Mozilla supports equality for all.”  But what happens when, for example, religious views and views on sexual orientation collide?  One cannot in this case support equality for all.  One must choose, and Mozilla has chosen, equality for sexual orientation above equality for religious views.  When push comes to shove, permissive views on sexual orientation trump permissive views on religion. 

This just highlights the doomed effort to be inclusive of everyone and every view.  By including and supporting people that, for example, do not consider sexual orientation to be problematic, you necessarily are excluding the viewpoints of those that do believe it to be problematic.  You are siding with one view against another, even if only implicitly.  One cannot be neutral.  To be open to some views is to be closed to the opposing views.

In conclusion, I believe both sides in the Eich drama should admit that they are being intolerant of some views.  Which is fine.  Let’s stop fighting about who is tolerant and intolerant.  These are buzzwords anyway.  Instead, let’s focus on the issues at hand and what our society should do about it.  Since we can’t embrace every view, let’s discuss which views should be supported over others, which compromises should be made, and then confidently defend our decisions and beliefs on these controversial matters.  It may be “intolerant”, but it is definitely more honest, genuine, and I believe in the long run, will be much more productive in moving forward on these issues.

Philosophy Changes the Business World: Huffington Post

Another article on how philosophy can be practical and useful in the business world.  “…philosophy has proved itself to be not only relevant but often the cornerstone of great innovation. Philosophy and entrepreneurship are a surprisingly good fit. Some of the most successful tech entrepreneurs and innovators come from a philosophy background and put the critical thinking skills they developed to good use launching new digital services to fill needs in various domains of society. Atlantic contributor Edward Tenner even went so far as to call philosophy the ‘most practical major.’”  Click here for the full story.

Report on the APA 2013 Graduate Guide: Attrition and Placements from MA Programs

APA LogoThe American Philosophical Association (APA) puts out an annual Guide to Graduate Programs in Philosophy.  The following statistics come completely from aggregating and compiling the data found in the 2013 guide.

Note: All data are self-reported by the departments in question and cannot be guaranteed accurate.  Furthermore, this is not a random or necessarily representative sample of philosophy programs as it contains information from only those schools that completed the 2013 Graduate Guide survey.

Summary of Findings:

  • Totals
    • 1013 MA students graduated/left these programs from 2008-2013
    • By percentage, these students were 24% women, 72% men, and 3% “Other”.
  • Attrition
    • Approximately 11% of students across all schools left their programs without a degree;
    • Within schools, on average women had an attrition rate 1% higher than men.
    • The highest attrition ratios/lowest completion ratios belong to (1) University of Wyoming at 36%/64%, (2) Tufts University at 30%/70%, and (3) San Diego State University at 28%/72%.
  • Acceptance into a PhD program
    • Approximately 41% of students across all schools were accepted into a PhD program.
    • Within schools, on average, men were 3% more likely to be accepted into a PhD program.
    • The highest acceptance ratios belong to (1) Tufts University at 89%, (2) Northern Illinois University at 70%, and (3) Texas A & M University at 69%.
  • Entered the Marketplace
    • Approximately 26% of students across all schools entered the marketplace.
    • Within schools, on average, women were 7% more likely to enter the marketplace.
  • Teaching Job
    • Approximately 12% of students enter into a teaching job after receiving their degree.
    • Within schools, on average men were 2% more likely to enter into a teaching job after receiving their degree.
  • Another Graduate Program
    • Approximately 13% of students enter another graduate program after receiving their degree.
    • Within schools, on average women and men were equally likely to enter another graduate program after receiving their degree. 

Attrition and Placements from MA Programs (All) (2008-2013)

The MA data has 6 categories of response for counts: Entered the marketplace, Left without receiving a degree, Accepted into a Ph.D. Program, Placed in a teaching job, Entered another graduate program, and Unknown.  I assume that the data is structured/interpreted in the following way:

  • All students graduating from/leaving the program
    • Left without receiving a degree
    • Completed the program
      • Accepted into a Ph.D. Program
      • Entered the marketplace (i.e., working for businesses/organizations and no longer in academia as a student/teacher)
      • Placed in a teaching job
      • Entered another graduate program (i.e., a non-philosophy graduate program)
      • Unknown (i.e., completed degree, but no information about current job/academic placements)

Note:  I assume that all categories are disjoint, that no student is counted in more than one category.  This may be a bad assumption, but I see no other alternative without having the actual counts of all students.  I considered other structures, but each resulted in over counting errors.  So this is my best interpretation.

Assuming this structure, I will calculate the following as:

  • All students graduating from/leaving the program =  Left without receiving a degree  + Completed the program
  • Completed the program = Accepted into a Ph.D. Program + Entered the marketplace + Placed in a teaching job + Entered another graduate program + Unknown
  • Attrition ratio = those that left the program without a degree / All students graduating from/leaving the program
  • Completion ratio = Completed the program /  All students graduating from/leaving the program = 1 – Attrition ratio
  • Ratio acceptance into a PhD program =  Accepted into a Ph.D. Program / Completed the program
  • Ratio of Entered the marketplace = Entered the marketplace / Completed the program
  • Ratio of placement in a teaching job = Placed in a teaching job / Completed the program
  • Ratio of entered another graduate program = Entered another graduate program / Completed the program
  • Ratio of Unknown = Unknown / Completed the program

Now to the counts, ratios, and rankings.

Number of students in the program – total from 2008-2013 and average per year

  • 1013 MA students graduated/left these programs from 2008-2013
  • As there are 22 schools, and 6 years of data, that’s 7.67 students per school per year on average.
  • By most students moving through the program during this period, we have (1) Georgia State University at 109 (18 per year), (2) University of Houston at 100 (17 per year), and (3) San Francisco State University at 62 (10 per year).

Here is the list of each school, ordered by total number of students over this period:

Schools Count of Students Average Students Per Year
Total / Average 1013 168.83
Georgia State University 109 18.17
University of Houston 100 16.67
San Francisco State University 62 10.33
University of North Florida 60 10.00
Loyola Marymount University 58 9.67
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 53 8.83
Northern Illinois University 50 8.33
San Diego State University 47 7.83
Texas Tech University 47 7.83
Colorado State University 46 7.67
Kent State University at Kent 46 7.67
Ohio University-Main Campus 42 7.00
Tufts University 40 6.67
Brandeis University 39 6.50
Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 35 5.83
University of Windsor 35 5.83
Gonzaga University 33 5.50
Texas A & M University 32 5.33
Florida State University 24 4.00
University of Wyoming 22 3.67
University of Mississippi 21 3.50
Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology 12 2.00

Attrition and Completion

  • Approximately 11% of students across all schools left their programs without a degree; 89% complete their degree.
  • The highest attrition ratios/lowest completion ratios belong to (1) University of Wyoming at 36%/64%, (2) Tufts University at 30%/70%, and (3) San Diego State University at 28%/72%.
  • Several schools report a 0% attrition ratio/100% completion ratio: Brandeis University, Florida State University, Loyola Marymount University, Northern Illinois University, San Francisco State University, University of Mississippi.

Below is a list containing the attrition and completion ratios for all schools, ordered by attrition:

Schools Attrition Ratio Completion Ratio
University of Wyoming 0.36 0.64
Tufts University 0.30 0.70
San Diego State University 0.28 0.72
Ohio University-Main Campus 0.24 0.76
Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 0.23 0.77
Georgia State University 0.17 0.83
Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology 0.17 0.83
University of North Florida 0.17 0.83
Gonzaga University 0.12 0.88
Total / Average 0.11 0.89
Texas Tech University 0.11 0.89
Texas A & M University 0.09 0.91
University of Houston 0.09 0.91
Colorado State University 0.09 0.91
Kent State University at Kent 0.07 0.93
University of Windsor 0.06 0.94
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 0.06 0.94
Brandeis University 0.00 1.00
Florida State University 0.00 1.00
Loyola Marymount University 0.00 1.00
Northern Illinois University 0.00 1.00
San Francisco State University 0.00 1.00
University of Mississippi 0.00 1.00

 

Acceptance into PhD Program

I decided to calculate acceptance into a PhD program based on those who had completed the program and not  based on all of those who had entered into the program (which would include those who had left without a degree).  As the attrition and completion rates are listed above, I believe this conditional probability (acceptance into PhD program given that one completed MA) will be more informative. 

Note: this does not distinguish between those who sought acceptance and received it, those who sought acceptance and did NOT receive it, and those who did not seek acceptance into a PhD program at all.  It only shows the proportion of students that completed the program that were also accepted into a PhD program.

  • Approximately 41% of students across all schools were accepted into a PhD program.
  • The highest acceptance ratios belong to (1) Tufts University at 89%, (2) Northern Illinois University at 70%, and (3) Texas A & M University at 69%.
  • The lowest acceptance ratios belong to (1) University of North Florida at 8%, (2) Oklahoma State University-Main Campus at 11%, and (3) Gonzaga University at 14%.

Below is a list containing the acceptance ratios for all schools, ordered by highest acceptance ratio:

Schools PhDAcceptanceRatio
Tufts University 0.89
Northern Illinois University 0.70
Texas A & M University 0.69
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 0.66
Brandeis University 0.59
University of Wyoming 0.57
Loyola Marymount University 0.50
Georgia State University 0.48
San Francisco State University 0.47
Texas Tech University 0.45
Florida State University 0.42
Total / Average 0.41
University of Windsor 0.39
San Diego State University 0.29
University of Mississippi 0.29
University of Houston 0.26
Ohio University-Main Campus 0.25
Colorado State University 0.21
Kent State University at Kent 0.21
Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology 0.20
Gonzaga University 0.14
Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 0.11
University of North Florida 0.08

 

Entered The Marketplace

What percentage of students entered the marketplace after receiving their degree?

  • Approximately 26% of students across all schools entered the marketplace .
  • The highest ratios of students entering the marketplace belong to (1) University of Houston at 55%, and (2) Kent State University at Kent at 53%, and (3) University of Mississippi at 52%.
  • Four schools report that no students entered the marketplace: Colorado State University, San Francisco State University, Texas A & M University, Tufts University.

Below is a list containing the entered the marketplace ratios for all schools, ordered by highest ratio:

Schools Entered the Marketplace Ratio
University of Houston 0.55
Kent State University at Kent 0.53
University of Mississippi 0.52
Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology 0.50
Gonzaga University 0.48
University of North Florida 0.48
Florida State University 0.46
Ohio University-Main Campus 0.38
Loyola Marymount University 0.34
University of Windsor 0.30
Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 0.30
Total / Average 0.26
Georgia State University 0.20
Texas Tech University 0.19
Northern Illinois University 0.14
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 0.14
Brandeis University 0.13
San Diego State University 0.09
University of Wyoming 0.07
Colorado State University 0.00
San Francisco State University 0.00
Texas A & M University 0.00
Tufts University 0.00

 

Placement in a Teaching Job

What percentage of students landed in a teaching job after receiving their degree?

  • Approximately 12% of students enter into a teaching job after receiving their degree .
  • The highest ratios of students entering into a teaching job belong to (1) University of North Florida at 32%, (2) Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology at 30%, and (3) San Francisco State University at 29%.
  • Two schools report not placing any students into teaching positions: Tufts University, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Below is a list containing the teaching placement ratios for all schools, ordered by highest ratio:

Schools Ratio of Teaching Job
University of North Florida 0.32
Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology 0.30
San Francisco State University 0.29
Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 0.26
Colorado State University 0.24
Gonzaga University 0.21
University of Mississippi 0.14
University of Wyoming 0.14
Florida State University 0.13
Ohio University-Main Campus 0.13
Total / Average 0.12
University of Windsor 0.12
Loyola Marymount University 0.12
San Diego State University 0.12
Kent State University at Kent 0.12
Texas A & M University 0.10
Georgia State University 0.07
Northern Illinois University 0.06
University of Houston 0.03
Brandeis University 0.03
Texas Tech University 0.02
Tufts University 0.00
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 0.00

 

Entered Another Graduate Program

What percentage of students enter another graduate program (not in philosophy) after receiving their degree?

  • Approximately 13% of students enter another graduate program after receiving their degree.
  • The highest ratios of students entering another graduate program belong to (1) Colorado State University at 26%, (1) Oklahoma State University-Main Campus at 26%, and (3) Georgia State University at 24%.
  • The lowest ratios of students entering another graduate program belong to (1) Florida State University at 0%, (1) Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology at 0%, and (3) Kent State University at Kent at 2%.

Below is a list containing the teaching placement ratios for all schools, ordered by highest ratio:

Schools Ratio of Another Grad Program
Colorado State University 0.26
Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 0.26
Georgia State University 0.24
San Francisco State University 0.24
University of Wyoming 0.21
University of Windsor 0.18
San Diego State University 0.18
Texas Tech University 0.14
Total / Average 0.13
Ohio University-Main Campus 0.13
University of North Florida 0.12
Tufts University 0.11
Gonzaga University 0.10
Texas A & M University 0.10
Brandeis University 0.10
Northern Illinois University 0.08
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 0.08
University of Mississippi 0.05
Loyola Marymount University 0.03
University of Houston 0.03
Kent State University at Kent 0.02
Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology 0.00
Florida State University 0.00

 

Unknown

What percentage of students are “Unknown” after receiving their degree?

  • Approximately 8% of students are “Unknown” after receiving their degree.
  • The highest ratios of students that are “Unknown” belong to (1) San Diego State University at 32%, (2) Colorado State University at 29%, and (3) Texas Tech University at 19%.
  • Several schools report no “Unknown” students: Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology, Florida State University, Loyola Marymount University, San Francisco State University, Tufts University, University of Mississippi, University of North Florida, University of Windsor, University of Wyoming

Below is a list containing the “Unknown” ratios for all schools, ordered by highest ratio:

Schools Ratio of Unknown
San Diego State University 0.32
Colorado State University 0.29
Texas Tech University 0.19
Brandeis University 0.15
Ohio University-Main Campus 0.13
University of Houston 0.12
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 0.12
Kent State University at Kent 0.12
Texas A & M University 0.10
Total / Average 0.08
Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 0.07
Gonzaga University 0.07
Northern Illinois University 0.02
Georgia State University 0.01
Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology 0.00
Florida State University 0.00
Loyola Marymount University 0.00
San Francisco State University 0.00
Tufts University 0.00
University of Mississippi 0.00
University of North Florida 0.00
University of Windsor 0.00
University of Wyoming 0.00

 



Combined Results

Here are the combined results, ordered by school name in alphabetical order:

Schools Count of Students Average Students Per Year Attrition Ratio Completion Ratio PhD Acceptance Ratio Entered the Marketplace ratio Ratio of Teaching Job Ratio of Another Grad Program Ratio of Unknown
All Schools Total / Average 1013.00 168.83 0.11 0.89 0.41 0.26 0.12 0.13 0.08
Brandeis University 39.00 6.50 0.00 1.00 0.59 0.13 0.03 0.10 0.15
Colorado State University 46.00 7.67 0.09 0.91 0.21 0.00 0.24 0.26 0.29
Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology 12.00 2.00 0.17 0.83 0.20 0.50 0.30 0.00 0.00
Florida State University 24.00 4.00 0.00 1.00 0.42 0.46 0.13 0.00 0.00
Georgia State University 109.00 18.17 0.17 0.83 0.48 0.20 0.07 0.24 0.01
Gonzaga University 33.00 5.50 0.12 0.88 0.14 0.48 0.21 0.10 0.07
Kent State University at Kent 46.00 7.67 0.07 0.93 0.21 0.53 0.12 0.02 0.12
Loyola Marymount University 58.00 9.67 0.00 1.00 0.50 0.34 0.12 0.03 0.00
Northern Illinois University 50.00 8.33 0.00 1.00 0.70 0.14 0.06 0.08 0.02
Ohio University-Main Campus 42.00 7.00 0.24 0.76 0.25 0.38 0.13 0.13 0.13
Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 35.00 5.83 0.23 0.77 0.11 0.30 0.26 0.26 0.07
San Diego State University 47.00 7.83 0.28 0.72 0.29 0.09 0.12 0.18 0.32
San Francisco State University 62.00 10.33 0.00 1.00 0.47 0.00 0.29 0.24 0.00
Texas A & M University 32.00 5.33 0.09 0.91 0.69 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.10
Texas Tech University 47.00 7.83 0.11 0.89 0.45 0.19 0.02 0.14 0.19
Tufts University 40.00 6.67 0.30 0.70 0.89 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.00
University of Houston 100.00 16.67 0.09 0.91 0.26 0.55 0.03 0.03 0.12
University of Mississippi 21.00 3.50 0.00 1.00 0.29 0.52 0.14 0.05 0.00
University of North Florida 60.00 10.00 0.17 0.83 0.08 0.48 0.32 0.12 0.00
University of Windsor 35.00 5.83 0.06 0.94 0.39 0.30 0.12 0.18 0.00
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 53.00 8.83 0.06 0.94 0.66 0.14 0.00 0.08 0.12
University of Wyoming 22.00 3.67 0.36 0.64 0.57 0.07 0.14 0.21 0.00

 

Attrition and Placements from MA Programs (Gender) (2008-2013)

Does gender make a difference in these ratios?  Let’s find out.

 

Number of students in the program – total from 2008-2013 and average per year

  • Of the 1013 MA students graduated/left these programs from 2008-2013, 245 were women, 734 were men, and 34 were “Other”.  By percentage, that is 24% women, 72% men, and 3% “Other”.
    • Note: Only two schools reported “Other” students, and one of these schools listed all of their students as “Other”.  Since there isn’t enough data to make any accurate conclusions about “Other” students, I will focus my analyses on men and women comparisons.
  • On average, that is 1.85 women and 5.56 men per school per year.
  • By highest percentage of women students moving through the program during this period, we have (1) University of North Florida at 53%, (2) Tufts University at 38, and (2) Florida State University at 38.
  • By highest percentage of men students moving through the program during this period, we have (1) Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology at 100%, (2) Ohio University-Main Campus at 93%, and (3) Oklahoma State University-Main Campus at 91%.

Here is the list of each school, ordered by percentage of women students over this period:

Schools Women Men Other Women Ratio Men Ratio Other Ratio
University of North Florida 32.00 28.00 0.00 0.53 0.47 0.00
Tufts University 15.00 25.00 0.00 0.38 0.63 0.00
Florida State University 9.00 15.00 0.00 0.38 0.63 0.00
University of Windsor 13.00 22.00 0.00 0.37 0.63 0.00
University of Houston 30.00 70.00 0.00 0.30 0.70 0.00
San Francisco State University 18.00 44.00 0.00 0.29 0.71 0.00
Loyola Marymount University 16.00 42.00 0.00 0.28 0.72 0.00
Kent State University at Kent 12.00 34.00 0.00 0.26 0.74 0.00
Brandeis University 10.00 29.00 0.00 0.26 0.74 0.00
Gonzaga University 8.00 25.00 0.00 0.24 0.76 0.00
All Schools Total / Average 245.00 734.00 34.00 0.24 0.72 0.03
University of Mississippi 5.00 16.00 0.00 0.24 0.76 0.00
San Diego State University 11.00 36.00 0.00 0.23 0.77 0.00
Georgia State University 24.00 85.00 0.00 0.22 0.78 0.00
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 11.00 42.00 0.00 0.21 0.79 0.00
Texas Tech University 9.00 38.00 0.00 0.19 0.81 0.00
Colorado State University 7.00 37.00 2.00 0.15 0.80 0.04
University of Wyoming 3.00 19.00 0.00 0.14 0.86 0.00
Northern Illinois University 6.00 44.00 0.00 0.12 0.88 0.00
Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 3.00 32.00 0.00 0.09 0.91 0.00
Ohio University-Main Campus 3.00 39.00 0.00 0.07 0.93 0.00
Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology 0.00 12.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00
Texas A & M University 0.00 0.00 32.00 0.00 0.00 1.00

 

Attrition and Completion

  • Approximately 13% of women students across all schools left their programs without a degree; 87% complete their degree.
  • Approximately 11% of men students across all schools left their programs without a degree; 89% complete their degree.
  • Within schools, on average women had an attrition rate 1% higher than men.
  • The highest attrition ratios for women belong to (1) University of Wyoming at 67%, (2) San Diego State University at 45%, and (3) Ohio University-Main Campus and Tufts University at 33%.
  • The highest attrition ratios for men belong to (1) University of Wyoming at 32%, (2) Tufts University at 28%, and (3) Oklahoma State University-Main Campus at 25%.
  • Several schools report 0% attrition for women: Brandeis University, Colorado State University ,Florida State University, Kent State University at Kent, Loyola Marymount University, Northern Illinois University, Oklahoma State University-Main Campus, San Francisco State University, University of Mississippi, University of Windsor, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
  • Several schools report 0% attrition for men: Brandeis University, Florida State University, Loyola Marymount University, Northern Illinois University, San Francisco State University, University of Mississippi

Below is a list containing the attrition ratios for all schools, ordered by women attrition:

Schools Women Attrition Men Attrition Difference Men and Women Attrition
University of Wyoming 0.67 0.32 -0.35
San Diego State University 0.45 0.22 -0.23
Ohio University-Main Campus 0.33 0.23 -0.10
Tufts University 0.33 0.28 -0.05
Georgia State University 0.25 0.15 -0.10
Texas Tech University 0.22 0.08 -0.14
University of North Florida 0.16 0.18 0.02
University of Houston 0.13 0.07 -0.06
All Schools Total / Average 0.13 0.11 -0.02
Gonzaga University 0.13 0.12 -0.01
Brandeis University 0.00 0.00 0.00
Florida State University 0.00 0.00 0.00
Loyola Marymount University 0.00 0.00 0.00
Northern Illinois University 0.00 0.00 0.00
San Francisco State University 0.00 0.00 0.00
University of Mississippi 0.00 0.00 0.00
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 0.00 0.07 0.07
Kent State University at Kent 0.00 0.09 0.09
University of Windsor 0.00 0.09 0.09
Colorado State University 0.00 0.11 0.11
Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 0.00 0.25 0.25
Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology   0.17 0.17
Texas A & M University     0.00

 

Acceptance into PhD Program

  • Approximately 38% of women students who completed their degree were accepted into a PhD program.
  • Approximately 40% of men students who completed their degree were accepted into a PhD program.
  • Within schools, on average, men were 3% more likely to be accepted into a PhD program.
  • The highest acceptance into a PhD program ratios for women belong to (1) Tufts University at 90%, (2) Northern Illinois University at 83%, and (3) University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee at 73%.
  • The highest acceptance into a PhD program  ratios for men belong to (1) Tufts University at 89%, (2) Northern Illinois University at 68%, and (3) University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee at 64%.
  • Several schools report 0% acceptance into a PhD program for women: Oklahoma State University-Main Campus, University of Mississippi, University of Wyoming.
  • The lowest acceptance into a PhD program  ratios for men belong to (1) University of North Florida at 9%, (2) Oklahoma State University-Main Campus at 13%, and (3) Gonzaga University at 14%.

Below is a list containing the acceptance ratios for all schools, ordered by highest women acceptance ratio:

Schools Ratio Women Accepted Ratio Men Accepted Difference Men and Women Ratios
Tufts University 0.90 0.89 -0.01
Northern Illinois University 0.83 0.68 -0.15
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 0.73 0.64 -0.09
Georgia State University 0.61 0.44 -0.17
Ohio University-Main Campus 0.50 0.23 -0.27
Brandeis University 0.50 0.62 0.12
Florida State University 0.44 0.40 -0.04
San Francisco State University 0.44 0.48 0.03
Loyola Marymount University 0.44 0.52 0.09
University of Windsor 0.38 0.40 0.02
All Schools Total / Average 0.38 0.40 0.02
Kent State University at Kent 0.33 0.16 -0.17
San Diego State University 0.33 0.29 -0.05
Colorado State University 0.29 0.21 -0.07
Texas Tech University 0.29 0.49 0.20
University of Houston 0.23 0.28 0.05
Gonzaga University 0.14 0.14 -0.01
University of North Florida 0.07 0.09 0.01
Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 0.00 0.13 0.13
University of Mississippi 0.00 0.38 0.38
University of Wyoming 0.00 0.62 0.62
Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology   0.20  
Texas A & M University      

 

Entered The Marketplace

  • Approximately 30% of women students who completed their degree entered the marketplace.
  • Approximately 26% of men students who completed their degree entered the marketplace.
  • Within schools, on average, women were 7% more likely to enter the marketplace.
  • The highest entered the marketplace ratios for women belong to (1) University of Wyoming at 100%, (2) University of Mississippi at 60%, and (3) University of Houston at 58%.
  • The highest entered the marketplace ratios for men belong to (1) Kent State University at Kent at 55%, (2) University of Houston at 54%, and (3) University of North Florida at 52%.
  • Several schools report 0% entering the marketplace for women: Colorado State University, San Francisco State University, Tufts University, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
  • Several schools report 0% entering the marketplace for men: Colorado State University, San Francisco State University, Tufts University, San Diego State University, University of Wyoming

Below is a list containing the entered the marketplace ratios for all schools, ordered by highest women ratio:

Schools Ratio Women Entered Ratio Men Entered Difference Men and Women
University of Wyoming 1.00 0.00 -1.00
University of Mississippi 0.60 0.50 -0.10
University of Houston 0.58 0.54 -0.04
San Diego State University 0.50 0.00 -0.50
Ohio University-Main Campus 0.50 0.37 -0.13
Kent State University at Kent 0.50 0.55 0.05
Florida State University 0.44 0.47 0.02
University of North Florida 0.44 0.52 0.08
Gonzaga University 0.43 0.50 0.07
Loyola Marymount University 0.38 0.33 -0.04
Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 0.33 0.29 -0.04
All Schools Total / Average 0.30 0.26 -0.04
Brandeis University 0.30 0.07 -0.23
Texas Tech University 0.29 0.17 -0.11
University of Windsor 0.23 0.35 0.12
Northern Illinois University 0.17 0.14 -0.03
Georgia State University 0.06 0.24 0.18
Colorado State University 0.00 0.00 0.00
San Francisco State University 0.00 0.00 0.00
Tufts University 0.00 0.00 0.00
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 0.00 0.18 0.18
Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology   0.50  
Texas A & M University      

 

Placement in a Teaching Job

  • Approximately 14% of women students enter into a teaching job after receiving their degree.
  • Approximately 12% of men students enter into a teaching job after receiving their degree.
  • Within schools, on average (strangely enough), men were 2% more likely to enter into a teaching job after receiving their degree.
  • The highest entered a teaching job ratios for women belong to (1) University of Mississippi at 40%, (2) San Francisco State University at 39%, and (3) University of North Florida at 30%.
  • The highest entered a teaching job ratios for men belong to (1) University of North Florida at 35%, (2) Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology at 30%, and (3) Oklahoma State University-Main Campus at 29%.
  • Several schools report 0% entering a teaching job for women: Northern Illinois University, Ohio University-Main Campus, Oklahoma State University-Main Campus, San Diego State University, Texas Tech University, Tufts University, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of Wyoming.
  • Several schools report 0% entering a teaching job for men: Brandeis University, Tufts University, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Below is a list containing the teaching placement ratios for all schools, ordered by highest women ratio:

Schools Ratio Women Teaching Ratio Men Teaching Difference Men and Women
University of Mississippi 0.40 0.06 -0.34
San Francisco State University 0.39 0.25 -0.14
University of North Florida 0.30 0.35 0.05
Gonzaga University 0.29 0.18 -0.10
Colorado State University 0.14 0.27 0.13
All Schools Total / Average 0.14 0.12 -0.02
Loyola Marymount University 0.13 0.12 -0.01
Florida State University 0.11 0.13 0.02
Brandeis University 0.10 0.00 -0.10
Kent State University at Kent 0.08 0.13 0.05
University of Houston 0.08 0.02 -0.06
University of Windsor 0.08 0.15 0.07
Georgia State University 0.06 0.07 0.01
Tufts University 0.00 0.00 0.00
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 0.00 0.00 0.00
Texas Tech University 0.00 0.03 0.03
Northern Illinois University 0.00 0.07 0.07
Ohio University-Main Campus 0.00 0.13 0.13
San Diego State University 0.00 0.14 0.14
University of Wyoming 0.00 0.15 0.15
Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 0.00 0.29 0.29
Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology   0.30  
Texas A & M University      

 

Entered Another Graduate Program

  • Approximately 12% of women students enter another graduate program after receiving their degree
  • Approximately 13% of men students enter another graduate program after receiving their degree
  • Within schools, on average women and men were equally likely to enter another graduate program after receiving their degree.
  • The highest entered another graduate program ratios for women belong to (1) Oklahoma State University-Main Campus at 67%, (2) Colorado State University at 43%, and (3) University of Windsor at 31%.
  • The highest entered another graduate program ratios for men belong to (1) San Francisco State University at 27%, (2) Georgia State University at 25%, and (3) University of Wyoming at 23%.
  • Several schools report 0% entering another graduate program for women: Brandeis University, Florida State University, Northern Illinois University, Ohio University-Main Campus, San Diego State University, University of Houston, University of Mississippi, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of Wyoming.
  • Several schools report 0% entering another graduate program for men: Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology, Florida State University, Kent State University at Kent.

Below is a list containing the entering another graduate program ratios for all schools, ordered by highest women ratio:

Schools Ratio Women Another Grad Program Ratio Men Another Grad Program Difference Men and Women
Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 0.67 0.21 -0.46
Colorado State University 0.43 0.21 -0.22
University of Windsor 0.31 0.10 -0.21
Georgia State University 0.22 0.25 0.03
University of North Florida 0.19 0.04 -0.14
San Francisco State University 0.17 0.27 0.11
Gonzaga University 0.14 0.09 -0.05
Texas Tech University 0.14 0.14 0.00
All Schools Total / Average 0.12 0.13 0.01
Tufts University 0.10 0.11 0.01
Kent State University at Kent 0.08 0.00 -0.08
Loyola Marymount University 0.06 0.02 -0.04
Brandeis University 0.00 0.14 0.14
Florida State University 0.00 0.00 0.00
Northern Illinois University 0.00 0.09 0.09
Ohio University-Main Campus 0.00 0.13 0.13
San Diego State University 0.00 0.21 0.21
University of Houston 0.00 0.05 0.05
University of Mississippi 0.00 0.06 0.06
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 0.00 0.10 0.10
University of Wyoming 0.00 0.23 0.23
Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology   0.00  
Texas A & M University      

 

Unknown

  • Approximately 6% of women students are “Unknown” after receiving their degree
  • Approximately 9% of men students are “Unknown” after receiving their degree
  • Within schools, on average men are 3% more likely to be “Unknown” after receiving their degree.
  • The highest “Unknown”ratios for women belong to (1) Texas Tech University at 29%, (2) University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee at 27%, and (3) San Diego State University at 17%.
  • The highest “Unknown” ratios for men belong to (1) San Diego State University at 36%, (2) Colorado State University at 30%, and (3) Brandeis University at 17%.
  • Several schools report 0% “Unknown” for women: Florida State University, Gonzaga University, Kent State University at Kent, Loyola Marymount University, Northern Illinois University, Ohio University-Main Campus, Oklahoma State University-Main Campus, San Francisco State University, Tufts University, University of Mississippi, University of North Florida, University of Windsor, University of Wyoming.
  • Several schools report 0% “Unknown” for men: Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology, Florida State University, Georgia State University, Loyola Marymount University, San Francisco State University, Tufts University, University of Mississippi, University of North Florida, University of Windsor, University of Wyoming

Below is a list containing the “Unknown” ratios for all schools, ordered by highest women ratio:

Schools Ratio Women Unknown Ratio Men Unknown Difference Men and Women
Texas Tech University 0.29 0.17 -0.11
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 0.27 0.08 -0.20
San Diego State University 0.17 0.36 0.19
Colorado State University 0.14 0.30 0.16
University of Houston 0.12 0.12 0.01
Brandeis University 0.10 0.17 0.07
All Schools Total / Average 0.06 0.09 0.03
Georgia State University 0.06 0.00 -0.06
Florida State University 0.00 0.00 0.00
Gonzaga University 0.00 0.09 0.09
Kent State University at Kent 0.00 0.16 0.16
Loyola Marymount University 0.00 0.00 0.00
Northern Illinois University 0.00 0.02 0.02
Ohio University-Main Campus 0.00 0.13 0.13
Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 0.00 0.08 0.08
San Francisco State University 0.00 0.00 0.00
Tufts University 0.00 0.00 0.00
University of Mississippi 0.00 0.00 0.00
University of North Florida 0.00 0.00 0.00
University of Windsor 0.00 0.00 0.00
University of Wyoming 0.00 0.00 0.00
Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology   0.00  
Texas A & M University      

 

Further Information

Visit our other reports on the APA 2013 Graduate Guide’s data

Visit our other philosophy placement reports based on each school’s placement data

pr_phd4_thumb_thumb Graduate Student Philosophy Placement Records 

pr_terminalma_thumb2_thumb_thumb

 Terminal MA Placement Report

pr_prestige_thumb2_thumb_thumb

 The “Prestige” Report

pr_contential[5] The Continental Philosophy Report

If you have any suggestions about how to make this report better, or would like to report updates to the APA 2013 Graduate Guide to include in this report, please send me an email.  Also, contact the APA directly for more information about this data.

Thanks,

Andy Carson
pn_logo16x16_thumb1Philosophy News

 

We’d like to thank Amy E. Ferrer, Executive Director, The American Philosophical Association, University of Delaware, for approving the use of this data, providing useful feedback, and for approving these reports for publication.

Young Educated Poor Childless Males: The Philosophical Profile Survey Analysis on Demographics

Who are you? In this report, Philosophy News's data analyst Andy Carson looks at data from the survey many of you have taken and attempts to draw some conclusions. The results may surprise you!
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Analyzing the Survey

About 6 months ago, Philosophy News published a Philosophical Profile survey to gather data on the philosophical views of our readers. We wanted to better understand how our readership thinks about philosophy and better understand who you are.  Since that time, over 500 users have participated in the survey in one way or another. We believe we have enough data to draw some tentative conclusions.  We start with the demographic data.

Note: if you haven’t taken our survey, or completed all parts of the survey, please do so.  it won’t take too long and will help provide better data for future studies.

Summary of Findings

  • Nearly 80% of respondents are male
  • Most are between 23 and 60 years old.
  • More than 80% are college educated.
  • 65% have no children.
  • Survey respondents are 43% undergraduates, 28% young workers, 15% established professors and parents, and 13% graduate students/young professors.
  • The attributes of having little money (0-$20K), being young (18-22), having no children, and being enrolled in a college/university are all associated with each other.
  • Those making between $20K and $40K mostly have 0 kids.  This increases to 2 children between $40K-$60K and 3 children between $60K-$80K.  However, this trend does not continue.  Those making between $80K-$100K have 2 kids and those making $100K+ or more have one child on average.
  • Younger respondents are still in their undergraduate programs.  They make little money and do not have children.  After undergraduate studies, respondents either enter into the work force or they enter into grad school.  They are making a little more money and are starting to have children.  After graduate school, respondents are making significantly more, having many more children, and are no longer in school. 
  • Everyone that believes Philosophy of Language is the most important field of study is male.
  • Nearly everyone that has an “Other” meta-ethical view does not have children.  Those that have an “Other” view of meta-ethics and do not have children tend to have more “liberal” views on applied ethical issues compared with those that do have children (those with children have a more “traditional” or “conservative” views on ethics). Perhaps one’s ethical views influence one’s decision to have children or children change how we think about the world.

Quick Stats

Here are some quick stats.

  • 372 / 512 survey takers (73%) responded to the first part of the survey. 
  • 79% are male, 20% are female, and 1% are other.  This is slightly skewed towards men in comparison with the percentages of men and women in academic philosophy and graduate school (70% men and 30% women graduate school; 75% men and 25% women faculty members).
  • 71% are between 23 and 60 years old; 20% are between 18 and 22.
  • 83% have had college education in some respect; 57% have at least a bachelors degree;
  • 58% are not currently enrolled as a student; 10% are in graduate school; 24% are in undergraduate school
  • 34% are in an “Other” occupation; 21% are teachers or in education; 10% are in engineering and technology
  • 65% have 0 children
  • 57% make less than $40K a year; 37% make less than $20K a year; 20% make between $20K and $40K a year.

Clusters

A cluster is simply a grouping of similar respondents taken from the whole population of respondents.  For example, we might form a cluster based around all of those respondents that have children.  These would form one group, while those that have no children would form another group (so we would have two clusters).  We can let an algorithm do the clustering for us to put each respondent into a cluster with those respondents most similar to him or her based on all answers given in this survey.  I use a Simple K Means clustering algorithm to generate 5 clusters (Note: this is the maximum number of clusters where each cluster contains at least 5% of the population).  Now let’s look at the defining characteristics of each cluster to determine what sort of grouping each cluster is, and accordingly, give it a name:

Cluster 0: The Undergraduate (37%)

  • These people are, in general, soon-to-be, current, or recent undergraduate students.  They have very few children, make little money, are currently/recently in school, are very young, and do not have a specific career path yet.
  • 46% are in undergraduate college; 36% are not currently enrolled
  • 84% have 0 children
  • 39% have some college but no degree; 19% have a bachelors; 28% have a high school degree
  • 75% make less than $20K a year
  • 85% are male
  • 54% are 23-30; 34% are 18-22
  • 44% are Other in occupation; 10% are teaching and education

Cluster 1: The Young Worker (28%)

  • This person has graduated from college and is no longer in school.  He or she is more likely to have children.  This person is starting to make money, but because he or she is still young, this person has not yet moved into the higher income brackets. 
  • 89% are not currently enrolled as a student
  • 50% have 0 children; 23% have two children
  • 64% have a bachelors degree
  • 37% make between $20K and $40K a year; 19% make $40K-$60K
  • 85% are male
  • 54% are 23-39; 34% are 18-22
  • 44% selected Other for their occupation

Cluster 2: The Graduate Student/Young Professor (13%)

  • Most are in graduate school, and the rest are mostly not enrolled.  Everyone has a higher education degree, and most have a graduate degree.  Nearly all are still fairly young, but not as young as other clusters.  Nearly a third are in teaching and education.
  • 58% are in graduate school; 33% are not currently enrolled
  • 72% have no children; 10% have 2 children
  • 83% have a graduate degree; everyone else has a bachelors
  • 41% are making $20K to $40K a year
  • 77% are male
  • 93% are 23-39
  • 33% are other in occupation; 31% are in teaching and education

Cluster 3: The Female Undergraduate (6%)

  • This cluster consists mostly of undergraduate women that already have an associates degree.  They have no children and make very little money.  They are college-aged.
  • 75% are undergraduates
  • 87% have 0 children
  • 45% have an associates degree; 20% have a high school degree
  • 66% make less than $20K a year
  • 79% are female
  • 70% are 18-22
  • 50% are Other in occupation

Cluster 4: The Established Professor and Parent (15%)

  • The people are no longer students.  Nearly all have graduate degrees and are in teaching and education.  Since they are older and are making more money, most have children. 
  • 94% are not enrolled as students
  • 29% have 0 children; 24% have 2 children; 19% have 3 children
  • 92% have a graduate degree
  • 33% make $60K-$80K; 15% make $100K+
  • 82% are male
  • 59% are 40-59
  • 75% are in teaching and education

In sum, it seems we have something like this breakdown: 43% undergraduates, 28% young workers, 15% established professors and parents, and 13% graduate students/young professors.

Associations

How do the answers to these questions relate? Associations describe the likelihood of respondents to fit into categories based on responses to questions in other categories.  For example, if you fit into one or two categories (e.g., low income and young in age), then we can likely say that you fit into another category (e.g., no children).  Based on these associations of responses, we can generate rules in the form of if-then statements.  For example, if you have low income and are young in age, then you will have no children.  Each of these rules has a probability associated with it to say how accurate the rule is.

Let’s look at some of the more interesting association rules, ordered by confidence greater than 0.85 (i.e., ratio of the accuracy of the rule applied to all cases):

  • What is your average yearly income?=0-$19,999 Which category below includes your age?=18-22 ==> How many children do you have?=0.0
    • 100% confidence for 58 respondents
  • Are you currently enrolled as a student?=Yes, at a college/university What is your average yearly income?=0-$19,999 ==> How many children do you have?=0.0
    • 98% confidence for 60 respondents
  • Are you currently enrolled as a student?=Yes, at a college/university Which category below includes your age?=18-22 ==> How many children do you have?=0.0
    • 98% confidence for 57 respondents
  • Are you currently enrolled as a student?=Yes, at a college/university How many children do you have?=0.0 What is your gender?=Male Which category below includes your age?=18-22 ==> What is your average yearly income?=0-$19,999
    • 89% confidence for 41 respondents
  • Are you currently enrolled as a student?=Yes, at a college/university What is your gender?=Male Which category below includes your age?=18-22==> What is your average yearly income?=0-$19,999
    • 87% confidence for 41 respondents
  • Are you currently enrolled as a student?=Yes, at a college/university==> How many children do you have?=0.0
    • 86% confidence for 76 respondents
  • What is your average yearly income?=0-$19,999 What is your gender?=Male Which category below includes your age?=18-22==> Are you currently enrolled as a student?=Yes, at a college/university
    • 85% confidence for 41 respondents

Not surprisingly, we can see that having little money (0-$20K), being young (18-22), having 0 children, and being enrolled in a college/university are all associated with each other.  So if you fit into one or two of these categories, then you are likely to fit into all of them.

Predictions

Suppose we want to predict one’s gender, age, or income?  Similar to the above association rules, we can use the answers to other questions to predict these values.  For example, suppose I know that no one under 20 has a child in my sample of respondents. Then I know that being under 20 and not having children are highly correlated in my sample.  I can take age to thus be a decent predictor of whether or not one has children. Then if I get another respondent that is under 20, I can predict that this respondent also does not have any children. 

I looked at each of the questions and attempted to find out which other questions best predict the answers to that question.  That is, I used the answers to all of the other questions to build models that predict the answers to the question under consideration, and looked at which specific other questions are the most important in making an accurate prediction. 

Note: I used the measure of information gain to rank the importance of attributes in prediction.  Information gain is a measure of the reduction of uncertainty produced by using an attribute to classify the target attribute.  The more information gain, the more important and useful the attribute is in predicting a different attribute.

Gender

  • Because the data is so lopsided towards men, the best model simply predicts that all respondents are men (with 79% accuracy) without using any other questions for input.  That isn’t very helpful.  Looking at which attributes are best at predicting Gender, the best indicator is the kind of occupation indicated.  But that only helps the model by 6%.  Until there is more (and balanced) data, there isn’t much we can say about predicting Gender based on other attributes.

Age

  • Age is a little easier to predict.  Although a simple model is only 66% accurate, the most important attribute in predicting age is the enrollment status of the respondent.  This helps the model by 46% on its own.  Second and most important is one’s average yearly income, at 36%.  This makes sense as younger people are more likely to be enrolled as students and to make little money, but older people are more likely to be in graduate school or out of school, and to make more money.  These two attributes combined produce the best predictive model.

Highest Degree

  • This again is difficult to predict.  Age is most important at 28% (the older you are, the higher your degree is likely to be), followed by enrollment status at 27%.  A model built on these two attributes is only 57% accurate: hardly illuminating.

Student Status

  • The most important attribute in predicting the enrollment status of a respondent is age (at 46%).  Between 18-22, one is likely to be in college.  17 or younger, one is likely to only have a high school degree or equivalent.  Over 22, most respondents are no longer in school.  Using this logic, the model predicts with 73% accuracy.

Current Occupation

  • The most important predictor of current occupation is one’s highest degree (22% information gain) followed by income (18% information gain).  However, with so little data and so many choices of occupation, it is difficult to make an accurate prediction with a model.

Children

  • The best predictors of the number of children one has are age (29%) and income (27%).  The model predicts that the young (below 22) have 0 children and those 60 or older have 2 children.  In between, most 23-39 year olds have 0 children.  With 40-59 year olds, the income is what makes the difference.  Those making less than $20K have 0 children.  Those making between $20K and $40K mostly have 0 kids.  $40K-$60K: 2 kids; $60K-$80K: 3 kids; $80K-$100K: 2 kids; $100K+ or more: 1 kid.  The model is 68% accurate.
  • This is very interesting.  It is understandable that those making very little money would not have children, and that as money increases, the number of children increases.  This indicates more money to take care of more children, and probably also a longer period of time working in one’s career (so a longer period of time available for supporting children).  But then it goes down after $80K.  Why?  Perhaps as the income increases, the job responsibilities increase, so those who are working in higher paying jobs have less time for family obligations and have consequently opted for smaller families.  But this is only speculation.  We’d need more data for more conclusive analysis.  Thoughts?

Income

  • Age (at 36%) and children (at 27%) are the best predictors of income.  This is likely due to the reasoning noted above.  If you have more children and are older, you likely have more income to support your children and through longer work experience.

Summary

We don’t have a whole lot of data to work with, but we can see some trends forming, and these match with our clusters. Younger respondents are still in their undergraduate programs.  They make little money and do not have children.  After undergraduate studies, respondents either enter into the work force or they enter into grad school.  They are making a little more money and are starting to have children.  After graduate school, respondents are making significantly more, having many more children, and are no longer in school.  Careers are now more defined with more respondents in teaching and education jobs.  All of this is pretty unsurprising and is intuitive.

Relationships to Other Survey Questions

Finally, do any other answers to questions in the overall survey predict these 7 categories better?  I took the answers of everyone who had finished each section of the survey. There were 174 respondents that did so.  Here is what I discovered, based on their completed answers:

Gender

  • The best overall predictor of Gender is the major philosophical category that one considers to be most important (8% info gain). 
  • 100% of respondents that chose Philosophy of Language were male (18 respondents), 85% that chose epistemology were male (35 respondents), and 85% that chose metaphysics were male (23 respondents).
  • Any thoughts on why this is?  What is it about Philosophy of Language that makes it generally more appealing and important to men than women?

Age

  • The best predictor of Age (amongst the other survey questions) is the number of years one has been studying philosophy (27% info gain). 
  • 79% of 18-22 year olds have been studying philosophy 1-5 years (26). 
  • I imagine that these are currently undergraduates who has just started taking college classes in philosophy or are majoring in philosophy.

Highest Degree

  • The best predictors of one’s highest degree depend on answers to the following questions: What is your education in philosophy? (49% info gain), Which early modern philosophy is the second most important? (22%), and Which early modern philosopher is the most important? (22%). 
  • 85% of people with a Master’s Degree in philosophy have a graduate degree (20) (Note: this should be 100%, but 3 people that reported having a Master’s in philosophy reported not having a graduate degree as their highest degree.  I don’t know why.); 84% of respondents with a Bachelor’s degree in philosophy have that as their highest degree (25). 
  • These are pretty obvious associations.

Student Status

  • The best predictor of student status is the number of years one has been studying philosophy (21% info gain).
  • 88% of those that have been studying philosophy for 11 to 20 years are not currently enrolled as students (25); 78% of those that are currently enrolled as students at a college/university have been studying philosophy 1-5 years (37). 
  • These are also pretty obvious associations, as one likely discovers philosophy in college, so one must already be out of college if one has been studying it for 11-20 years.  Those that are currently in college have only recently discovered philosophy, and so have only been studying it for a short while.

Current Occupation

  • Here is a list of the top 3 questions for predicting current occupation, ordered by info gain:
    • 0.36     What is your education in philosophy?
    • 0.27     Which existential/continental philosopher is the most important in contributing to subsequent philosophical thought?
    • 0.27     Which of the major philosophical categories is MOST important/central/foundational to properly understanding/framing the other philosophical categories?
  • Unfortunately, since there are so many current occupations, the association rules that are generated to predict current occupation aren’t very reliable (below 50%), and generally reflect answers which mostly everyone selected anyway. 

Children

  • One’s most important modern philosopher selection contributes an information gain of 28%.  One’s position on meta-ethics contributes 24%.
  • 92% of those that have an “Other” meta-ethical view do not have children (24);  72% of those who believe Russell is the more important modern philosopher do not have children (31); 64% of those who believe Wittgenstein to be the most important modern philosopher do not have children.
  • The fact that Russell and Wittgenstein fans do not have children is not surprising because most respondents chose one of these two and most respondents have no children. 
  • However, while most respondents do not have children (65%), very few respondents chose “Other” as their meta-ethical view (13%), and they have no children at 92%, which is much higher than average. 
    • Why would having an “Other” meta-ethical view lead one to not have children?
      • Cultural Relativists have on average 1.31 children; Emotivists have 0.47 children; “I don’t knows” have 1.85 children; “Others” have 0.0; Realists have 1.3; Subjectivists have 0.87. 
      • As a group, “Others” fall outside 3 standard deviations in their average number of children from the average of all of the groups, so there does seem to be something significant going on here, but without knowing more about what “Other” means it is difficult to tell a story about why this is the case.
    • Is it a byproduct of something else in common?
      • No one that chose “Other” for Meta-ethics and do not have children believe that abortion generally is morally impermissible, while those that did choose “Other” and do have children were split on the issue.
      • No one that chose “Other” for Meta-ethics and do not have children believe that capital punishment generally is morally impermissible, while those that did choose “Other” and do have children are generally in favor of capital punishment.
      • Very few that chose “Other” for Meta-ethics and do not have children believe that virtue ethics is the right approach to normative ethics (most favor utilitarianism), while those that did choose “Other” and do have children generally do believe that virtue ethics is the right approach.
      • Very few that chose “Other” for Meta-ethics and do not have children believe that libertarianism is the right approach to political philosophy (most favored liberalism), while those that did choose “Other” and do have children generally do believe that libertarianism is the right approach.
      • All of those with children are not currently in school.  Only 31% of those without children are not in school.
      • Most of those with children are older than those that do not have children.
      • Most of those without children are atheists, while those with children are split on the issue.
  • It thus seems that those that do have children are more “traditional” or “conservative” than those that do not have children, particularly on the ethical, political, and religious issues. We will look at these issues more in depth in later analyses. In any case, age and enrollment status are still much better predictors of children than anything else, and since this is a very small sample, we shouldn’t take too much from these observations.

Income

  • Here is a list of the top 3 questions for predicting income, ordered by info gain:
    • 0.26    Which early modern philosopher is the most important in contributing to subsequent philosophical thought?
    • 0.24    Which early modern philosopher is the second most important in contributing to subsequent philosophical thought?
    • 0.23    Applied Ethics: Capital Punishment is...
  • The best association rules found using other survey questions aren’t really that great: 54% of respondents that believe capital punishment is never morally permissible and have been studying philosophy 1-5 years have an average yearly income of $0-$20K (37); 52% of respondents that have been studying philosophy 1-5 years have an average yearly income of $0-$20K.  Nothing very reliable here.

Moving Forward

With such a small sample, it is difficult to draw any firm conclusions.  However, if more people respond to the survey we can gather more data.  So, if you like the sort of results, observations, and analyses done above, and you haven’t taken or completed our survey (upon which this data is based), please do so.  We’ll be able to provide better results and more interesting conclusions for you in the future. 

Next up: Philosophical Expertise (coming soon)

Thanks,

Andy Carson
pn_logo16x16_thumb1Philosophy News

Report on the APA 2013 Graduate Guide: Attrition and Placement from PhD Programs

Philosophy News's analysis and report on the data contained in The American Philosophical Association's (APA) 2013 Guide to Graduate Programs in Philosophy. We report on findings such as how many students graduated from or left programs, the average attrition and completion percentages for schools, and the distribution of men and women in tenure track positions.

The American Philosophical Association (APA) puts out an annual Guide to Graduate Programs in Philosophy.  The following statistics come completely from aggregating and compiling the data found in the 2013 guide.

Note: All data are self-reported by the departments in question and cannot be guaranteed accurate.  Furthermore, this is not a random or necessarily representative sample of philosophy programs as it contains information from only those schools that completed the 2013 Graduate Guide survey.

Summary of Findings:

  • Counts (2008-2013)
    • A total of 1544 students graduated from/left these programs from 2008-2013.
    • This total is comprised of 71% men, 26% women, and 3% other.
    • The average school had about 19 students entering the marketplace; about 4 left without receiving a degree.
    • The University of Arizona had most number of students passing through the program during this period, at 72 students.
  • Attrition and Completion (2008-2013)
    • The average attrition percentage for a school is 17%; the average completion percentage is 83%.
    • The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign had the highest attrition rate at 55%
    • Across all schools, men and women both have an average attrition rate of 17%; men and women both have an average completion rate of 83%. 
    • The average in school difference in attrition is 3% higher for women.
  • Placement (2008-2013)
    • The average school has 44% Non Tenure Track placements, 43% Tenure Track placements, 9% Unplaced placements, and 4% Unknown placements.
    • The highest percentage of known Tenure Track placements belongs to the University of California-San Diego at 79%.
    • Across all schools, 48% of men are in Non Tenure Track  placements while 38% of women are in Non Tenure Track placements.
    • Across all schools, 40% of men are placed into Tenure Track positions and 53% of women are placed into Tenure Track positions.
    • Across all schools, 10% of men are Unplaced and 7% of women are Unplaced.

Placement (All) from PhD Programs from 2008-2013:

Schools reported counts of students from 2008-2013 for each of the following categories: those that entered the marketplace after receiving a degree, those that left the program without a degree, those that were placed in a non-tenure track position, those that were placed in a tenure-track position, and those that were not placed.

My take on this data is that it is structured in the following way:

  • All students that passed through the program
    • Those that entered the marketplace after receiving a degree.
      • Those that were placed in a non-tenure track position
      • Those that were placed in a tenure-track position
      • Those that were not placed
    • Those that left the program without a degree

For example, Boston University has this data:

  • 34 students passed through the program
    • 31 entered the marketplace
      • 17 placed in non-tenure track positions
      • 14 placed in tenure-track positions
      • 0 were not placed
    • 3 left without receiving a degree

There may a missing category of students that received a degree but did NOT enter the marketplace (i.e., did not seek academic employment).  However, this data is not reported, so I will assume for the following calculations that all students that left the program either received a degree and entered the marketplace or did not receive a degree.

Based on this structure, we can calculate the following:

  • Number of students in the program – total from 2008-2013 and average per year
  • Attrition ratio = those that left the program without a degree / All students that passed through the program
  • Completion ratio = Those that entered the marketplace after receiving a degree /  All students that passed through the program
  • Ratio of Non-TT placements = Those that were placed in a non-tenure track position / Those that entered the marketplace after receiving a degree.
  • Ratio of TT placements = Those that were placed in a tenure track position / Those that entered the marketplace after receiving a degree.
  • Ratio of unplaced students = Those that were not placed / Those that entered the marketplace after receiving a degree.

The lists below contain there calculations. 

Note: this data may not be complete, and several schools did not report any data (e.g., Arizona State University, Loyola University Chicago, University of Toronto).

Number of students in the program (All) – total from 2008-2013 and average per year

  • There were 1284 students that entered the marketplace from these schools; 260 students left their programs without a degree; thus, there was a total of 1544 students graduating from/leaving these programs from 2008-2013.  This is an average of 257 graduating/leaving per year.
  • The average school had about 19 students entering the marketplace; about 4 left without receiving a degree; thus, the average school had about 23 students graduate/leave the program from 2008-2013.  This is an average of about 4 per year.
  • By most number of students passing through the program during this period, we have (1) University of Arizona at 72, (1) University of Notre Dame at 72, and (3) Stony Brook University at 63.
  • By least number of students passing the program during this period, we have (1) Dalhousie University at 7, (2) Carnegie Mellon University at 8, and (3) University of Nebraska-Lincoln, University of California-Santa Cruz, University of Alberta,  and Texas A & M University all at 9.
Schools Entered the marketplace Left without receiving a degree Total students that passed through the program Average Per Year
Totals / Average of All Schools 1284.00 260.00 1544.00 257.33
University of Arizona 52.00 20.00 72.00 12.00
University of Notre Dame 54.00 18.00 72.00 12.00
Stony Brook University 63.00 0.00 63.00 10.50
University of South Florida-Main Campus 27.00 18.00 45.00 7.50
University of Wisconsin-Madison 37.00 8.00 45.00 7.50
Princeton University 40.00 4.00 44.00 7.33
Purdue University-West Lafayette 33.00 9.00 42.00 7.00
University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) 29.00 11.00 40.00 6.67
Stanford University 32.00 6.00 38.00 6.33
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 17.00 21.00 38.00 6.33
Vanderbilt University 34.00 3.00 37.00 6.17
Boston University 31.00 3.00 34.00 5.67
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 34.00 0.00 34.00 5.67
University of California-Riverside 26.00 7.00 33.00 5.50
Rutgers University-New Brunswick 32.00 0.00 32.00 5.33
University of Southern California 17.00 15.00 32.00 5.33
Cornell University 28.00 3.00 31.00 5.17
Syracuse University 23.00 7.00 30.00 5.00
University of Texas at Austin 25.00 5.00 30.00 5.00
Southern Illinois University Carbondale 20.00 9.00 29.00 4.83
Indiana University-Bloomington 27.00 1.00 28.00 4.67
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 28.00 0.00 28.00 4.67
Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 23.00 4.00 27.00 4.50
William Marsh Rice University 14.00 13.00 27.00 4.50
Catholic University of America 23.00 2.00 25.00 4.17
Emory University 25.00 0.00 25.00 4.17
University of California, Berkeley 25.00 0.00 25.00 4.17
Average School 19.45 3.93 23.39 3.90
Johns Hopkins University 18.00 5.00 23.00 3.83
University of Tennessee-Knoxville 15.00 8.00 23.00 3.83
University of Hawaii at Manoa 20.00 2.00 22.00 3.67
Duquesne University 21.00 0.00 21.00 3.50
McMaster University 21.00 0.00 21.00 3.50
University of California-Santa Barbara 16.00 5.00 21.00 3.50
University of Utah 14.00 6.00 20.00 3.33
University of Virginia-Main Campus 20.00 0.00 20.00 3.33
New York University 19.00 0.00 19.00 3.17
University of California-San Diego 19.00 0.00 19.00 3.17
University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 11.00 8.00 19.00 3.17
Washington University in St. Louis 16.00 3.00 19.00 3.17
University of Washington-Seattle Campus 12.00 5.00 17.00 2.83
Bowling Green State University-Main Campus 16.00 0.00 16.00 2.67
DePaul University 12.00 4.00 16.00 2.67
Duke University 12.00 3.00 15.00 2.50
Michigan State University 13.00 2.00 15.00 2.50
University of California-Davis 11.00 4.00 15.00 2.50
University of Georgia 14.00 0.00 14.00 2.33
University of Illinois at Chicago 14.00 0.00 14.00 2.33
University of Miami 11.00 3.00 14.00 2.33
University of Rochester 14.00 0.00 14.00 2.33
SUNY at Binghamton 13.00 0.00 13.00 2.17
Temple University 12.00 0.00 12.00 2.00
The Ohio State University-Main Campus 12.00 0.00 12.00 2.00
CUNY Graduate School and University Center 11.00 0.00 11.00 1.83
University of Cincinnati-Main Campus 7.00 4.00 11.00 1.83
University of Dallas 11.00 0.00 11.00 1.83
Indiana University (HPS) 10.00 0.00 10.00 1.67
University of Pittsburgh (HPS) 9.00 1.00 10.00 1.67
Texas A & M University 6.00 3.00 9.00 1.50
University of Alberta 7.00 2.00 9.00 1.50
University of California-Santa Cruz 5.00 4.00 9.00 1.50
University of Nebraska-Lincoln 9.00 0.00 9.00 1.50
Carnegie Mellon University 8.00 0.00 8.00 1.33
Dalhousie University 6.00 1.00 7.00 1.17
Arizona State University 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Loyola University Chicago 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
University of Toronto 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

 

Attrition and Completion Ratios (All) 2008-2013

  • The average attrition percentage is 17%; the average completion percentage is 83%.
  • The schools with the highest attrition percentages are (1) University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign at 55%, (2) William Marsh Rice University at 48%, and (3) University of Southern California at 47%.
  • Many schools report having a 100% completion percentage.  Here they are in alphabetical order: Bowling Green State University-Main Campus, Carnegie Mellon University, CUNY Graduate School and University Center, Duquesne University, Emory University, Indiana University (HPS), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, McMaster University, New York University, Rutgers University-New Brunswick, Stony Brook University, SUNY at Binghamton, Temple University, The Ohio State University-Main Campus, University of California, Berkeley, University of California-San Diego, University of Dallas, University of Georgia, University of Illinois at Chicago, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, University of Rochester, University of Virginia-Main Campus.
Schools Attrition Completion
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 0.55 0.45
William Marsh Rice University 0.48 0.52
University of Southern California 0.47 0.53
University of California-Santa Cruz 0.44 0.56
University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 0.42 0.58
University of South Florida-Main Campus 0.40 0.60
University of Cincinnati-Main Campus 0.36 0.64
University of Tennessee-Knoxville 0.35 0.65
Texas A & M University 0.33 0.67
Southern Illinois University Carbondale 0.31 0.69
University of Utah 0.30 0.70
University of Washington-Seattle Campus 0.29 0.71
University of Arizona 0.28 0.72
University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) 0.28 0.73
University of California-Davis 0.27 0.73
DePaul University 0.25 0.75
University of Notre Dame 0.25 0.75
University of California-Santa Barbara 0.24 0.76
Syracuse University 0.23 0.77
University of Alberta 0.22 0.78
Johns Hopkins University 0.22 0.78
Purdue University-West Lafayette 0.21 0.79
University of Miami 0.21 0.79
University of California-Riverside 0.21 0.79
Duke University 0.20 0.80
University of Wisconsin-Madison 0.18 0.82
Average School 0.17 0.83
University of Texas at Austin 0.17 0.83
Stanford University 0.16 0.84
Washington University in St. Louis 0.16 0.84
Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 0.15 0.85
Dalhousie University 0.14 0.86
Michigan State University 0.13 0.87
University of Pittsburgh (HPS) 0.10 0.90
Cornell University 0.10 0.90
Princeton University 0.09 0.91
University of Hawaii at Manoa 0.09 0.91
Boston University 0.09 0.91
Vanderbilt University 0.08 0.92
Catholic University of America 0.08 0.92
Indiana University-Bloomington 0.04 0.96
Bowling Green State University-Main Campus 0.00 1.00
Carnegie Mellon University 0.00 1.00
CUNY Graduate School and University Center 0.00 1.00
Duquesne University 0.00 1.00
Emory University 0.00 1.00
Indiana University (HPS) 0.00 1.00
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 0.00 1.00
McMaster University 0.00 1.00
New York University 0.00 1.00
Rutgers University-New Brunswick 0.00 1.00
Stony Brook University 0.00 1.00
SUNY at Binghamton 0.00 1.00
Temple University 0.00 1.00
The Ohio State University-Main Campus 0.00 1.00
University of California, Berkeley 0.00 1.00
University of California-San Diego 0.00 1.00
University of Dallas 0.00 1.00
University of Georgia 0.00 1.00
University of Illinois at Chicago 0.00 1.00
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 0.00 1.00
University of Nebraska-Lincoln 0.00 1.00
University of Rochester 0.00 1.00
University of Virginia-Main Campus 0.00 1.00

Placements (All) 2008-2013

If my assumption about the structure of the data was correct, then the number of non-TT placements + number of TT placements + number of unplaced students should = number of students that entered the marketplace.  However, this is not always the case.  For example, Vanderbilt reports 34 students having entered the marketplace.  9 students were placed in non-TT positions, 8 in TT positions, and 0 in unplaced positions.  This is only 17, half of the students that entered the marketplace.  Where are the other students? 

Some schools even have more students than those reported as entering the marketplace.  For example, University of Texas at Austin has 25 students that entered the marketplace.  However, 13 students were placed in Non-TT positions, 19 were placed in TT positions, and 0 were not placed.  That is 32 students.  Why are there most students placement positions than those that entered the marketplace?

Either the data is incomplete, in error, or I have misunderstood the structure of the data.  Assuming the data is incomplete or in error, there are two alternatives of analysis I see:

  1. Calculate each ratio using the sum of the numbers reported, not the number of students entering the marketplace.
  2. Add an “Unknown” column to make up the discrepancy between the number of students entering the marketplace and the sum of the numbers in each placement category.

I think option 1 would unfairly punish schools that have reported all of their data (41/64) and reward schools that are missing data or have data error (23/64) (since the missing data likely involves students that have not placed or are counted twice).  As such, I will follow option 2 and show the ratio of “Unknown” students needed to bring the sum of all placement ratios equal to 1.  Then you can be the judge of what is going on.

  • The average schools has 44% non-TT placements, 43% TT placements, 9% Unplaced placements, and 4% Unknown placements.
  • Non-TT Placements
    • Highest percentage of known non-TT placements: (1) University of Miami at 82%, (2) Carnegie Mellon University at 75%, and (3) University of Virginia-Main Campus at 70%.
    • Lowest percentage of known non-TT placements: (1) University of California, Berkeley at 8%, (2) University of Hawaii at Manoa at 10%, and (3) Duke University at 17%.
  • TT Placements
    • Highest percentage of known TT placements: (1) University of California-San Diego at 79%, (2) University of Pittsburgh (HPS) at 78%, and (3) University of California, Berkeley and University of Texas at Austin at 76%.
    • Lowest percentage of known TT placements: (1) University of Rochester at 14%, (1) University of Georgia at 14%, and (3) University of Miami at 18%.
  • Unplaced Placements
    • Highest percentage of known Unplaced placements: (1) University of Rochester at 50%, (2) Indiana University (HPS) at 30%, and (3) University of Georgia at 29%.
    • Many schools report 0% Unplaced placements: Boston University, Carnegie Mellon University, Cornell University, CUNY Graduate School and University Center, Dalhousie University, DePaul University, Duke University, New York University, Temple University, Texas A & M University, University of Alberta, University of California-San Diego, University of Cincinnati-Main Campus, University of Miami, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor ,University of Pittsburgh (HPS), University of Tennessee-Knoxville, University of Texas at Austin, University of Utah, University of Virginia-Main Campus, University of Washington-Seattle Campus, Vanderbilt University
  • Unknown
    • Highest percentage of under-reported Unknown placements: (1) Stony Brook University at 100%, (2) Vanderbilt University at 50%, and (3) McMaster University at 38%.
    • Highest percentage of over-reported Unknown placements: (1) University of Texas at Austin at -28%, (2) Southern Illinois University Carbondale at -15%, and (3) Purdue University-West Lafayette at -9%.
    • Many schools (41) do not have any Unknown placements: Boston University, Bowling Green State University-Main Campus, Carnegie Mellon University, CUNY Graduate School and University Center, Dalhousie University, DePaul University, Duquesne University, Emory University, Indiana University (HPS), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Michigan State University, New York University, Princeton University, SUNY at Binghamton, Syracuse University, Texas A & M University, University of California, Berkeley, University of California-Davis, University of California-Riverside, University of California-San Diego, University of California-Santa Barbara, University of California-Santa Cruz, University of Cincinnati-Main Campus, University of Dallas, University of Hawaii at Manoa, University of Illinois at Chicago, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of Miami, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, University of Notre Dame, University of Oklahoma Norman Campus, University of Pittsburgh (HPS), University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy), University of Rochester, University of South Florida-Main Campus, University of Utah, University of Virginia-Main Campus, University of Washington-Seattle Campus, Washington University in St. Louis, William Marsh Rice University.

Here is the full list, sorted by RatioTT:

Schools RatioNonTT RatioTT RatioUnplaced RatioUnknown
University of California-San Diego 0.21 0.79 0.00 0.00
University of Pittsburgh (HPS) 0.22 0.78 0.00 0.00
University of California, Berkeley 0.08 0.76 0.16 0.00
University of Texas at Austin 0.52 0.76 0.00 -0.28
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 0.25 0.71 0.04 0.00
University of Hawaii at Manoa 0.10 0.70 0.20 0.00
Dalhousie University 0.33 0.67 0.00 0.00
DePaul University 0.33 0.67 0.00 0.00
CUNY Graduate School and University Center 0.36 0.64 0.00 0.00
Duke University 0.17 0.58 0.00 0.25
New York University 0.42 0.58 0.00 0.00
University of Cincinnati-Main Campus 0.43 0.57 0.00 0.00
Johns Hopkins University 0.28 0.56 0.11 0.06
Emory University 0.36 0.52 0.12 0.00
University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) 0.45 0.52 0.03 0.00
University of Washington-Seattle Campus 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.00
University of Wisconsin-Madison 0.30 0.49 0.03 0.19
University of Notre Dame 0.43 0.48 0.09 0.00
University of South Florida-Main Campus 0.48 0.48 0.04 0.00
Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 0.26 0.48 0.17 0.09
Duquesne University 0.38 0.48 0.14 0.00
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 0.53 0.47 0.00 0.00
Stanford University 0.47 0.47 0.03 0.03
SUNY at Binghamton 0.31 0.46 0.23 0.00
Purdue University-West Lafayette 0.52 0.45 0.12 -0.09
Boston University 0.55 0.45 0.00 0.00
University of Illinois at Chicago 0.43 0.43 0.14 0.00
Average School 0.44 0.43 0.09 0.04
University of California-Riverside 0.42 0.42 0.15 0.00
University of Southern California 0.47 0.41 0.18 -0.06
Rutgers University-New Brunswick 0.47 0.41 0.03 0.09
Cornell University 0.43 0.39 0.00 0.18
Princeton University 0.35 0.38 0.28 0.00
University of California-Santa Barbara 0.44 0.38 0.19 0.00
University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 0.45 0.36 0.18 0.00
University of Utah 0.64 0.36 0.00 0.00
William Marsh Rice University 0.43 0.36 0.21 0.00
Southern Illinois University Carbondale 0.65 0.35 0.15 -0.15
Texas A & M University 0.67 0.33 0.00 0.00
The Ohio State University-Main Campus 0.42 0.33 0.17 0.08
University of Tennessee-Knoxville 0.33 0.33 0.00 0.33
Washington University in St. Louis 0.63 0.31 0.06 0.00
Michigan State University 0.54 0.31 0.15 0.00
Catholic University of America 0.35 0.30 0.09 0.26
Syracuse University 0.57 0.30 0.13 0.00
University of Virginia-Main Campus 0.70 0.30 0.00 0.00
Indiana University-Bloomington 0.41 0.30 0.19 0.11
University of Alberta 0.57 0.29 0.00 0.14
University of California-Davis 0.64 0.27 0.09 0.00
University of Dallas 0.64 0.27 0.09 0.00
University of Arizona 0.27 0.27 0.15 0.31
Carnegie Mellon University 0.75 0.25 0.00 0.00
Temple University 0.67 0.25 0.00 0.08
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 0.65 0.24 0.12 0.00
Vanderbilt University 0.26 0.24 0.00 0.50
University of Nebraska-Lincoln 0.67 0.22 0.11 0.00
Indiana University (HPS) 0.50 0.20 0.30 0.00
University of California-Santa Cruz 0.60 0.20 0.20 0.00
McMaster University 0.33 0.19 0.10 0.38
Bowling Green State University-Main Campus 0.56 0.19 0.25 0.00
University of Miami 0.82 0.18 0.00 0.00
University of Georgia 0.64 0.14 0.29 -0.07
University of Rochester 0.36 0.14 0.50 0.00
Stony Brook University 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00

Placement (Gender) from PhD Programs from 2008-2013:

Does gender make a difference in any of these calculations?  Let’s perform these calculations again and see.

Number of students in the program (Gender) – total from 2008-2013

  • 1544 students are reported as having entered the marketplace or left without receiving a degree.
  • There are 1099 men, 401 women, and 44 other.  By percentage, that is 71% men, 26% women, and 3% other.
    • Note: some schools that reported in the “Other” category did not report in the men or women categories (lumping all students into “Other”), or reported fewer numbers in these other categories (lumping some students into “Other”).  Since these “Other” counts and percentages may not accurately reflect the true other counts and percentages, I will not do any rankings based on these counts.
  • The schools with the highest known percentages of men are (1) University of Georgia at 100%, (2) The Ohio State University-Main Campus at 92%, and (3) CUNY Graduate School and University Center at 91%. 
  • The schools with the highest known percentages of women are (1) Dalhousie University at 86%, (2) DePaul University at 63%, and (3) Temple University at 58%.  These are the only schools that have more than 50% women graduating from/leaving these programs from 2008-2013.

Below is the data for each school, ordered by percentage of men.

School Total Sum of Men Total Sum of Women Total Sum of Other Total Students Percent Men Percent Women Percent Other
University of Georgia 14.00 0.00 0.00 14.00 1.00 0.00 0.00
The Ohio State University-Main Campus 11.00 1.00 0.00 12.00 0.92 0.08 0.00
CUNY Graduate School and University Center 10.00 1.00 0.00 11.00 0.91 0.09 0.00
University of Dallas 10.00 1.00 0.00 11.00 0.91 0.09 0.00
Southern Illinois University Carbondale 26.00 3.00 0.00 29.00 0.90 0.10 0.00
New York University 17.00 2.00 0.00 19.00 0.89 0.11 0.00
University of Alberta 8.00 1.00 0.00 9.00 0.89 0.11 0.00
Carnegie Mellon University 7.00 1.00 0.00 8.00 0.88 0.13 0.00
University of South Florida-Main Campus 39.00 6.00 0.00 45.00 0.87 0.13 0.00
Duquesne University 18.00 3.00 0.00 21.00 0.86 0.14 0.00
University of California-Santa Barbara 18.00 3.00 0.00 21.00 0.86 0.14 0.00
University of Southern California 27.00 5.00 0.00 32.00 0.84 0.16 0.00
Purdue University-West Lafayette 35.00 7.00 0.00 42.00 0.83 0.17 0.00
Syracuse University 25.00 5.00 0.00 30.00 0.83 0.17 0.00
Indiana University-Bloomington 23.00 5.00 0.00 28.00 0.82 0.18 0.00
University of Arizona 59.00 13.00 0.00 72.00 0.82 0.18 0.00
University of Cincinnati-Main Campus 9.00 2.00 0.00 11.00 0.82 0.18 0.00
Cornell University 25.00 6.00 0.00 31.00 0.81 0.19 0.00
Indiana University (HPS) 8.00 2.00 0.00 10.00 0.80 0.20 0.00
University of California, Berkeley 20.00 5.00 0.00 25.00 0.80 0.20 0.00
University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) 32.00 8.00 0.00 40.00 0.80 0.20 0.00
University of Virginia-Main Campus 16.00 4.00 0.00 20.00 0.80 0.20 0.00
University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 15.00 4.00 0.00 19.00 0.79 0.21 0.00
University of California-Riverside 26.00 7.00 0.00 33.00 0.79 0.21 0.00
University of Rochester 11.00 3.00 0.00 14.00 0.79 0.21 0.00
University of Tennessee-Knoxville 18.00 5.00 0.00 23.00 0.78 0.22 0.00
William Marsh Rice University 21.00 6.00 0.00 27.00 0.78 0.22 0.00
University of Texas at Austin 23.00 7.00 0.00 30.00 0.77 0.23 0.00
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 26.00 8.00 0.00 34.00 0.76 0.24 0.00
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 29.00 9.00 0.00 38.00 0.76 0.24 0.00
Johns Hopkins University 17.00 6.00 0.00 23.00 0.74 0.26 0.00
University of California-Davis 11.00 4.00 0.00 15.00 0.73 0.27 0.00
University of Wisconsin-Madison 33.00 12.00 0.00 45.00 0.73 0.27 0.00
University of Notre Dame 52.00 20.00 0.00 72.00 0.72 0.28 0.00
McMaster University 15.00 6.00 0.00 21.00 0.71 0.29 0.00
University of Miami 10.00 4.00 0.00 14.00 0.71 0.29 0.00
All Totals / Average School 1099.00 401.00 44.00 1544.00 0.71 0.26 0.03
Stanford University 27.00 11.00 0.00 38.00 0.71 0.29 0.00
University of Pittsburgh (HPS) 7.00 3.00 0.00 10.00 0.70 0.30 0.00
University of Utah 14.00 6.00 0.00 20.00 0.70 0.30 0.00
University of California-San Diego 13.00 6.00 0.00 19.00 0.68 0.32 0.00
Princeton University 30.00 14.00 0.00 44.00 0.68 0.32 0.00
University of Hawaii at Manoa 15.00 6.00 1.00 22.00 0.68 0.27 0.05
Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 18.00 8.00 1.00 27.00 0.67 0.30 0.04
Texas A & M University 6.00 3.00 0.00 9.00 0.67 0.33 0.00
University of California-Santa Cruz 6.00 3.00 0.00 9.00 0.67 0.33 0.00
Rutgers University-New Brunswick 21.00 11.00 0.00 32.00 0.66 0.34 0.00
Boston University 22.00 12.00 0.00 34.00 0.65 0.35 0.00
University of Washington-Seattle Campus 11.00 6.00 0.00 17.00 0.65 0.35 0.00
Bowling Green State University-Main Campus 10.00 6.00 0.00 16.00 0.63 0.38 0.00
SUNY at Binghamton 8.00 5.00 0.00 13.00 0.62 0.38 0.00
Stony Brook University 38.00 25.00 0.00 63.00 0.60 0.40 0.00
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 16.00 12.00 0.00 28.00 0.57 0.43 0.00
University of Illinois at Chicago 8.00 6.00 0.00 14.00 0.57 0.43 0.00
Emory University 14.00 11.00 0.00 25.00 0.56 0.44 0.00
University of Nebraska-Lincoln 5.00 4.00 0.00 9.00 0.56 0.44 0.00
Duke University 8.00 7.00 0.00 15.00 0.53 0.47 0.00
Michigan State University 8.00 7.00 0.00 15.00 0.53 0.47 0.00
Washington University in St. Louis 10.00 9.00 0.00 19.00 0.53 0.47 0.00
Temple University 5.00 7.00 0.00 12.00 0.42 0.58 0.00
DePaul University 6.00 10.00 0.00 16.00 0.38 0.63 0.00
Vanderbilt University 8.00 12.00 17.00 37.00 0.22 0.32 0.46
Dalhousie University 1.00 6.00 0.00 7.00 0.14 0.86 0.00
Catholic University of America 0.00 0.00 25.00 25.00 0.00 0.00 1.00

 

Attrition and Completion Ratios (All) 2008-2013

Does gender make a difference in attrition and completion? Not on average, but within different schools it may make a difference.

  • Across all schools, men and women both have an average attrition rate of 17%; men and women both have an average completion rate of 83%.  The Other category has an attrition rate of 7% and a completion rate of 93%.
  • Within schools, the attrition rate between men and women differs as much as 35% higher for men (Southern Illinois University Carbondale) and 88% higher for women (University of Alberta).  The average in school difference in attrition is 3% higher for women.  24 of 61 schools (39%) report no difference within the school.
  • The highest attrition rates for men belong to (1) University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign at 55%, (2) University of Southern California at 52%, and (3) University of California-Santa Cruz at 50%.
  • The highest attrition rates for women belong to (1) University of Alberta at 100%, (2) William Marsh Rice University at 67%, and (3) University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign at 56%.
  • Many schools report a 100% completion rate for men: Bowling Green State University-Main Campus, Carnegie Mellon University, CUNY Graduate School and University Center, Dalhousie University, Duquesne University, Emory University, Indiana University (HPS), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, McMaster University, Michigan State University, New York University, Rutgers University-New Brunswick, Stony Brook University, SUNY at Binghamton, Temple University, The Ohio State University-Main Campus, University of California, Berkeley, University of California-San Diego, University of Dallas, University of Georgia, University of Illinois at Chicago, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, University of Rochester, University of Virginia-Main Campus.
  • Many schools report a 100% completion rate for women: Boston University, Bowling Green State University-Main Campus, Carnegie Mellon University, CUNY Graduate School and University Center, Duquesne University, Emory University, Indiana University (HPS), Indiana University-Bloomington, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, McMaster University, New York University, Rutgers University-New Brunswick, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Stony Brook University, SUNY at Binghamton, Temple University, The Ohio State University-Main Campus, University of California, Berkeley, University of California-San Diego, University of Dallas, University of Illinois at Chicago, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, University of Pittsburgh (HPS), University of Rochester, University of Virginia-Main Campus

Here is the full list of schools, ordered by Attrition for Men:

School Attrition Men Attrition Women Attrition Other Within School Attrition Difference Completion Men Completion Women Completion Other
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 0.55 0.56   0.00 0.45 0.44  
University of Southern California 0.52 0.20   0.32 0.48 0.80  
University of California-Santa Cruz 0.50 0.33   0.17 0.50 0.67  
William Marsh Rice University 0.43 0.67   -0.24 0.57 0.33  
University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 0.40 0.50   -0.10 0.60 0.50  
University of South Florida-Main Campus 0.38 0.50   -0.12 0.62 0.50  
University of Washington-Seattle Campus 0.36 0.17   0.20 0.64 0.83  
University of Utah 0.36 0.17   0.19 0.64 0.83  
Southern Illinois University Carbondale 0.35 0.00   0.35 0.65 1.00  
DePaul University 0.33 0.20   0.13 0.67 0.80  
Texas A & M University 0.33 0.33   0.00 0.67 0.67  
University of Cincinnati-Main Campus 0.33 0.50   -0.17 0.67 0.50  
University of Tennessee-Knoxville 0.33 0.40   -0.07 0.67 0.60  
University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) 0.31 0.13   0.19 0.69 0.88  
University of California-Davis 0.27 0.25   0.02 0.73 0.75  
University of Arizona 0.27 0.31   -0.04 0.73 0.69  
Vanderbilt University 0.25 0.08 0.00 0.17 0.75 0.92 1.00
Duke University 0.25 0.14   0.11 0.75 0.86  
Johns Hopkins University 0.24 0.17   0.07 0.76 0.83  
University of Notre Dame 0.23 0.30   -0.07 0.77 0.70  
University of California-Santa Barbara 0.22 0.33   -0.11 0.78 0.67  
University of Wisconsin-Madison 0.21 0.08   0.13 0.79 0.92  
Purdue University-West Lafayette 0.20 0.29   -0.09 0.80 0.71  
Syracuse University 0.20 0.40   -0.20 0.80 0.60  
All Totals / Average School 0.17 0.17 0.07 0.01 0.83 0.83 0.93
University of California-Riverside 0.15 0.43   -0.27 0.85 0.57  
Stanford University 0.15 0.18   -0.03 0.85 0.82  
University of Pittsburgh (HPS) 0.14 0.00   0.14 0.86 1.00  
Boston University 0.14 0.00   0.14 0.86 1.00  
University of Texas at Austin 0.13 0.29   -0.16 0.87 0.71  
University of Alberta 0.13 1.00   -0.88 0.88 0.00  
University of Miami 0.10 0.50   -0.40 0.90 0.50  
Washington University in St. Louis 0.10 0.22   -0.12 0.90 0.78  
Cornell University 0.08 0.17   -0.09 0.92 0.83  
University of Hawaii at Manoa 0.07 0.17 0.00 -0.10 0.93 0.83 1.00
Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 0.06 0.25 1.00 -0.19 0.94 0.75 0.00
Indiana University-Bloomington 0.04 0.00   0.04 0.96 1.00  
Princeton University 0.03 0.21   -0.18 0.97 0.79  
University of Georgia 0.00       1.00    
Bowling Green State University-Main Campus 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
Carnegie Mellon University 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
CUNY Graduate School and University Center 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
Dalhousie University 0.00 0.17   -0.17 1.00 0.83  
Duquesne University 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
Emory University 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
Indiana University (HPS) 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
McMaster University 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
Michigan State University 0.00 0.29   -0.29 1.00 0.71  
New York University 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
Rutgers University-New Brunswick 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
Stony Brook University 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
SUNY at Binghamton 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
Temple University 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
The Ohio State University-Main Campus 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
University of California, Berkeley 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
University of California-San Diego 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
University of Dallas 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
University of Illinois at Chicago 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
University of Nebraska-Lincoln 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
University of Rochester 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
University of Virginia-Main Campus 0.00 0.00   0.00 1.00 1.00  
Catholic University of America     0.08       0.92

 

Placements (Gender) 2008-2013

Does gender make a difference in terms of placement?  I will follow the same methodology as before, including an “Unknown” placement category to complete the ratios.

Non-TT Placement

  • Across all schools, 48% of men are in non-TT placements while 38% of women are in non-TT placements (Other is at 20%). Within schools, men are 6% more likely to be in non-TT placements than women are.  Thus, it seems that men are more likely to be in non-TT placements than women are.
  • The schools with the highest percentage of men in non-TT placements are (1) Dalhousie University at 100%, (1) Vanderbilt University at 100%, and (3) University of Miami at 89%.
  • Several schools have 100% of women in non-TT positions: Carnegie Mellon University, CUNY Graduate School and University Center, New York University, Texas A & M University, The Ohio State University-Main Campus, University of Cincinnati-Main Campus, University of Dallas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • The largest difference between Men non-TT ratios and Women non-TT ratios (Men – Women) belong to (1) University of Washington-Seattle Campus at 86%, (2) Dalhousie University at 80%, and (3) Vanderbilt University at 73%.
  • The largest difference between Women non-TT ratios and Men non-TT ratios (Women – Men) belong to (1) CUNY Graduate School and University Center at 70%, (2) University of Cincinnati-Main Campus at 67%, and (3) New York University at 65%.

Here is the full list, sorted by Men non-TT Ratios:

School Men NonTT Ratio Women NonTT Ratio Other NonTT Ratio Difference Men and Women Ratios
Vanderbilt University 1.00 0.27 0.00 0.73
Dalhousie University 1.00 0.20   0.80
University of Miami 0.89 0.50   0.39
University of Washington-Seattle Campus 0.86 0.00   0.86
Temple University 0.80 0.57   0.23
University of Utah 0.78 0.40   0.38
University of Virginia-Main Campus 0.75 0.50   0.25
University of California-Davis 0.75 0.33   0.42
Carnegie Mellon University 0.71 1.00   -0.29
Bowling Green State University-Main Campus 0.70 0.33   0.37
Washington University in St. Louis 0.67 0.57   0.10
University of California-Santa Cruz 0.67 0.50   0.17
Southern Illinois University Carbondale 0.65 0.67   -0.02
University of Georgia 0.64     0.64
University of Dallas 0.60 1.00   -0.40
University of Nebraska-Lincoln 0.60 0.75   -0.15
Syracuse University 0.60 0.33   0.27
Boston University 0.58 0.50   0.08
Rutgers University-New Brunswick 0.57 0.27   0.30
Purdue University-West Lafayette 0.57 0.20   0.37
University of Alberta 0.57     0.57
University of Texas at Austin 0.55 0.40   0.15
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 0.54 1.00   -0.46
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 0.54 0.50   0.04
University of Southern California 0.54 0.25   0.29
Stanford University 0.52 0.33   0.19
Texas A & M University 0.50 1.00   -0.50
Michigan State University 0.50 0.60   -0.10
Indiana University (HPS) 0.50 0.50   0.00
University of South Florida-Main Campus 0.50 0.33   0.17
University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) 0.50 0.29   0.21
SUNY at Binghamton 0.50 0.00   0.50
Average School 0.48 0.38 0.20 0.10
Indiana University-Bloomington 0.45 0.20   0.25
University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 0.44 0.50   -0.06
Duquesne University 0.44 0.00   0.44
University of California-Santa Barbara 0.43 0.50   -0.07
William Marsh Rice University 0.42 0.50   -0.08
University of California-Riverside 0.41 0.50   -0.09
University of Notre Dame 0.40 0.50   -0.10
McMaster University 0.40 0.17   0.23
Cornell University 0.39 0.60   -0.21
Princeton University 0.38 0.27   0.11
The Ohio State University-Main Campus 0.36 1.00   -0.64
Emory University 0.36 0.36   -0.01
New York University 0.35 1.00   -0.65
University of Wisconsin-Madison 0.35 0.18   0.16
University of Cincinnati-Main Campus 0.33 1.00   -0.67
University of Tennessee-Knoxville 0.33 0.33   0.00
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 0.31 0.17   0.15
Johns Hopkins University 0.31 0.20   0.11
CUNY Graduate School and University Center 0.30 1.00   -0.70
University of Rochester 0.27 0.67   -0.39
University of Arizona 0.26 0.33   -0.08
University of Illinois at Chicago 0.25 0.67   -0.42
DePaul University 0.25 0.38   -0.13
Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 0.24 0.33   -0.10
University of California-San Diego 0.23 0.17   0.06
University of Pittsburgh (HPS) 0.17 0.33   -0.17
Duke University 0.17 0.17   0.00
University of Hawaii at Manoa 0.14 0.00 0.00 0.14
University of California, Berkeley 0.10 0.00   0.10
Stony Brook University 0.00 0.00   0.00
Arizona State University       0.00
Catholic University of America     0.35 0.00
Loyola University Chicago       0.00
University of Toronto       0.00


Tenure track placement

  • Across all schools, 40% of men are placed into TT positions and 53% of women are placed into TT positions (27% of Other are placed into TT positions).  Within schools, women are 5% more likely on average to be placed into a TT position than men are.  Thus, it seems that women are more likely to place into TT positions than men are.
  • The schools with the highest percentage of men in TT placements are (1) University of Texas at Austin at 85%, (2) University of Pittsburgh (HPS) at 83%, and (3) University of California-San Diego at 77%.
  • Three schools have 100% of women in TT positions: Duquesne University, University of California, Berkeley, University of Washington-Seattle Campus
  • The largest difference between Men TT ratios and Women TT ratios (Men – Women) belong to (1) CUNY Graduate School and University Center at 70%, (2) University of Cincinnati-Main Campus at 67%, and (3) New York University at 65%.
  • The largest difference between Women TT ratios and Men TT ratios (Women – Men) belong to (1) University of Washington-Seattle Campus at 86%, (2) Dalhousie University at 80%, and (3) Vanderbilt University at 73%.

Below is the full list, ordered by Men TT Ratio:

School Men TT Ratio Women TT Ratio Other TT Ratio Difference Men and Women Ratios
University of Texas at Austin 0.85 0.40   0.45
University of Pittsburgh (HPS) 0.83 0.67   0.17
University of California-San Diego 0.77 0.83   -0.06
DePaul University 0.75 0.63   0.13
CUNY Graduate School and University Center 0.70 0.00   0.70
University of California, Berkeley 0.70 1.00   -0.30
University of Cincinnati-Main Campus 0.67 0.00   0.67
New York University 0.65 0.00   0.65
University of Hawaii at Manoa 0.64 0.80 1.00 -0.16
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 0.63 0.83   -0.21
University of Illinois at Chicago 0.63 0.17   0.46
Johns Hopkins University 0.62 0.40   0.22
Duke University 0.50 0.67   -0.17
Texas A & M University 0.50 0.00   0.50
University of Notre Dame 0.48 0.50   -0.03
Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 0.47 0.50   -0.03
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 0.46 0.50   -0.04
University of South Florida-Main Campus 0.46 0.67   -0.21
University of California-Riverside 0.45 0.25   0.20
University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) 0.45 0.71   -0.26
Stanford University 0.43 0.56   -0.12
Emory University 0.43 0.64   -0.21
University of California-Santa Barbara 0.43 0.00   0.43
Boston University 0.42 0.50   -0.08
University of Tennessee-Knoxville 0.42 0.00   0.42
Average School 0.40 0.53 0.27 -0.14
Cornell University 0.39 0.40   -0.01
Duquesne University 0.39 1.00   -0.61
University of Southern California 0.38 0.50   -0.12
University of Wisconsin-Madison 0.38 0.73   -0.34
Princeton University 0.38 0.36   0.02
The Ohio State University-Main Campus 0.36 0.00   0.36
Southern Illinois University Carbondale 0.35 0.33   0.02
University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 0.33 0.50   -0.17
Washington University in St. Louis 0.33 0.29   0.05
William Marsh Rice University 0.33 0.50   -0.17
Purdue University-West Lafayette 0.32 0.60   -0.28
Indiana University-Bloomington 0.32 0.20   0.12
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 0.31 0.00   0.31
University of Dallas 0.30 0.00   0.30
Carnegie Mellon University 0.29 0.00   0.29
University of Alberta 0.29     0.29
Indiana University (HPS) 0.25 0.00   0.25
Michigan State University 0.25 0.40   -0.15
SUNY at Binghamton 0.25 0.80   -0.55
Syracuse University 0.25 0.67   -0.42
University of Virginia-Main Campus 0.25 0.50   -0.25
University of Arizona 0.23 0.44   -0.21
University of Utah 0.22 0.60   -0.38
Temple University 0.20 0.29   -0.09
University of Nebraska-Lincoln 0.20 0.25   -0.05
Rutgers University-New Brunswick 0.19 0.82   -0.63
University of Rochester 0.18 0.00   0.18
University of Georgia 0.14     0.14
University of Washington-Seattle Campus 0.14 1.00   -0.86
McMaster University 0.13 0.33   -0.20
University of California-Davis 0.13 0.67   -0.54
University of Miami 0.11 0.50   -0.39
Bowling Green State University-Main Campus 0.10 0.33   -0.23
Vanderbilt University 0.00 0.73 0.00 -0.73
Dalhousie University 0.00 0.80   -0.80
Stony Brook University 0.00 0.00   0.00
University of California-Santa Cruz 0.00 0.50   -0.50
Catholic University of America     0.30 0.00
Arizona State University       0.00
Loyola University Chicago       0.00
University of Toronto       0.00

Unplaced

  • Across all schools, 10% of men are Unplaced and 7% of women are Unplaced  (5% of Other are Unplaced).  Within schools, men are 2% more likely on average to be  Unplaced than women are.  Thus, it seems that men are slightly more likely to be Unplaced than women are.
  • The schools with the highest percentage of men in Unplaced placements are (1) University of Rochester at 55%, (2) University of California-Santa Cruz at 33%, and (3) University of Georgia at 29%.
  • The schools with the highest percentage of women in Unplaced placements are (1) Indiana University (HPS) at 50%, (1) University of California-Santa Barbara at 50%, and (3) Princeton University at 45%.
  • The largest difference between Men Unplaced ratios and Women Unplaced ratios (Men – Women) belong to (1) University of California-Santa Cruz at 33%, (2) University of Georgia at 29%, and (3) Michigan State University at 25%.
  • The largest difference between Women Unplaced ratios and Men Unplaced ratios (Women – Men) belong to (1) University of California-Santa Barbara at 36%, (2) Indiana University-Bloomington at 26%, and (3) Indiana University (HPS) at 25%.

                    Below is the full list, ordered by Men Unplaced Ratio:

                    School Men Unplaced Ratio Women Unplaced Ratio Other Unplaced Ratio Difference Men and Women Ratios
                    University of Rochester 0.55 0.33   0.21
                    University of California-Santa Cruz 0.33 0.00   0.33
                    University of Georgia 0.29     0.29
                    Indiana University (HPS) 0.25 0.50   -0.25
                    SUNY at Binghamton 0.25 0.20   0.05
                    Michigan State University 0.25 0.00   0.25
                    William Marsh Rice University 0.25 0.00   0.25
                    University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 0.22 0.00   0.22
                    University of Hawaii at Manoa 0.21 0.20 0.00 0.01
                    Emory University 0.21 0.00   0.21
                    Princeton University 0.21 0.45   -0.25
                    Bowling Green State University-Main Campus 0.20 0.33   -0.13
                    University of California, Berkeley 0.20 0.00   0.20
                    University of Nebraska-Lincoln 0.20 0.00   0.20
                    The Ohio State University-Main Campus 0.18 0.00   0.18
                    Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 0.18 0.17   0.01
                    Southern Illinois University Carbondale 0.18 0.00   0.18
                    Duquesne University 0.17 0.00   0.17
                    University of Southern California 0.15 0.25   -0.10
                    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 0.15 0.00   0.15
                    Syracuse University 0.15 0.00   0.15
                    University of California-Santa Barbara 0.14 0.50   -0.36
                    University of Arizona 0.14 0.22   -0.08
                    Indiana University-Bloomington 0.14 0.40   -0.26
                    University of California-Riverside 0.14 0.25   -0.11
                    University of Illinois at Chicago 0.13 0.17   -0.04
                    University of California-Davis 0.13 0.00   0.13
                    University of Notre Dame 0.13 0.00   0.13
                    Purdue University-West Lafayette 0.11 0.20   -0.09
                    Average School 0.10 0.07 0.05 0.03
                    University of Dallas 0.10 0.00   0.10
                    Johns Hopkins University 0.08 0.20   -0.12
                    McMaster University 0.07 0.17   -0.10
                    Massachusetts Institute of Technology 0.06 0.00   0.06
                    Rutgers University-New Brunswick 0.05 0.00   0.05
                    University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) 0.05 0.00   0.05
                    University of South Florida-Main Campus 0.04 0.00   0.04
                    University of Wisconsin-Madison 0.04 0.00   0.04
                    Washington University in St. Louis 0.00 0.14   -0.14
                    Stanford University 0.00 0.11   -0.11
                    Boston University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Carnegie Mellon University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Cornell University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    CUNY Graduate School and University Center 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Dalhousie University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    DePaul University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Duke University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    New York University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Stony Brook University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Temple University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Texas A & M University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of California-San Diego 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Cincinnati-Main Campus 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Miami 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Pittsburgh (HPS) 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Tennessee-Knoxville 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Texas at Austin 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Utah 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Virginia-Main Campus 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Washington-Seattle Campus 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Vanderbilt University 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
                    University of Alberta 0.00     0.00
                    Arizona State University       0.00
                    Catholic University of America     0.09 0.00
                    Loyola University Chicago       0.00
                    University of Toronto       0.00

                    Unknown Placement

                    • Across all schools, 3% of men are Unknown and 1% of women are Unknown (49% of Other are Unknown).  Within schools, there is 0% difference on average between men that are unknown and women that are unknown in placement.
                    • The schools with the highest percentage of men in Unknown placements are (1) Stony Brook University at 100%, (2) McMaster University at 40%, and (3) University of Arizona at 37%.
                    • The schools with the highest percentage of women in Unplaced placements are (1) Stony Brook University at 100%, (1) University of Tennessee-Knoxville at 67%, and (3) McMaster University at 33%.
                    • The largest difference between Men Unplaced ratios and Women Unplaced ratios (Men – Women) belong to (1) University of Arizona at 37%, (2) Rutgers University-New Brunswick at 28%, and (3) Cornell University at 22%.
                    • The largest difference between Women Unplaced ratios and Men Unplaced ratios (Women – Men) belong to (1) University of Texas at Austin at 60%, (2) University of Tennessee-Knoxville at 42%, and (3) Johns Hopkins University at 20%.

                    Below is the full list, ordered by Men Unknown Ratio:

                    School Men Unknown Ratio Women Unknown Ratio Other Unknown Ratio Difference Men and Women Ratio
                    Stony Brook University 1.00 1.00   0.00
                    McMaster University 0.40 0.33   0.07
                    University of Arizona 0.37 0.00   0.37
                    Duke University 0.33 0.17   0.17
                    University of Tennessee-Knoxville 0.25 0.67   -0.42
                    University of Wisconsin-Madison 0.23 0.09   0.14
                    Cornell University 0.22 0.00   0.22
                    Rutgers University-New Brunswick 0.19 -0.09   0.28
                    University of Alberta 0.14     0.14
                    Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 0.12 0.00   0.12
                    Indiana University-Bloomington 0.09 0.20   -0.11
                    The Ohio State University-Main Campus 0.09 0.00   0.09
                    Stanford University 0.04 0.00   0.04
                    Princeton University 0.03 -0.09   0.13
                    Average School 0.03 0.01 0.49 0.02
                    Johns Hopkins University 0.00 0.20   -0.20
                    Temple University 0.00 0.14   -0.14
                    Boston University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Bowling Green State University-Main Campus 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Carnegie Mellon University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    CUNY Graduate School and University Center 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Dalhousie University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    DePaul University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Duquesne University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Emory University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Indiana University (HPS) 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Massachusetts Institute of Technology 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Michigan State University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    New York University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Purdue University-West Lafayette 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    SUNY at Binghamton 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Syracuse University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Texas A & M University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of California, Berkeley 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of California-Davis 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of California-Riverside 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of California-San Diego 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of California-Santa Barbara 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of California-Santa Cruz 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Cincinnati-Main Campus 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Dallas 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Hawaii at Manoa 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
                    University of Illinois at Chicago 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Miami 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Nebraska-Lincoln 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Notre Dame 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Pittsburgh (HPS) 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Rochester 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of South Florida-Main Campus 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Utah 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Virginia-Main Campus 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Washington-Seattle Campus 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    Vanderbilt University 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00
                    Washington University in St. Louis 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    William Marsh Rice University 0.00 0.00   0.00
                    University of Georgia -0.07     -0.07
                    University of Southern California -0.08 0.00   -0.08
                    Southern Illinois University Carbondale -0.18 0.00   -0.18
                    University of Texas at Austin -0.40 0.20   -0.60
                    Arizona State University       0.00
                    Catholic University of America     0.26 0.00
                    Loyola University Chicago       0.00
                    University of Toronto       0.00

                     

                    Further Information

                    Visit our other reports on the APA 2013 Graduate Guide’s data

                    Visit our other philosophy placement reports based on each school’s placement data

                    pr_phd4_thumb_thumb Graduate Student Philosophy Placement Records 

                    pr_terminalma_thumb2_thumb_thumb

                     Terminal MA Placement Report

                    pr_prestige_thumb2_thumb_thumb

                     The “Prestige” Report

                    pr_contential[5] The Continental Philosophy Report

                    If you have any suggestions about how to make this report better, or would like to report updates to the APA 2013 Graduate Guide to include in this report, please send me an email.  Also, contact the APA directly for more information about this data.

                    Thanks,

                    Andy Carson
                    pn_logo16x16_thumb1Philosophy News

                     

                    We’d like to thank Amy E. Ferrer, Executive Director, The American Philosophical Association, University of Delaware, for approving the use of this data, providing useful feedback, and for approving these reports for publication.

                    Report on the APA 2013 Graduate Guide: Degrees Awarded and Time to Complete PhD

                    Philosophy News's analysis and report on the data contained in The American Philosophical Association's (APA) 2013 Guide to Graduate Programs in Philosophy. We report on findings such as which school awarded the most philosophy PhDs, the average time to complete a PhD, and which schools have the highest and lowest completion rates.

                    APA LogoThe American Philosophical Association (APA) puts out an annual Guide to Graduate Programs in Philosophy.  The following statistics come completely from aggregating and compiling the data found in the 2013 guide.

                    Note: All data are self-reported by the departments in question and cannot be guaranteed accurate.  Furthermore, this is not a random or necessarily representative sample of philosophy programs as it contains information from only those schools that completed the 2013 Graduate Guide survey.

                    Summary of Findings

                    • CUNY has awarded the most degrees of any school since 2009, a total of 53.  That is about 11 per year.
                    • Nearly 1500 PhDs in philosophy have been awarded by these schools since 2009.
                    • The average time to complete a PhD in philosophy is about 7 years.
                    • Claremont Graduate University has the highest average completion at 10 years
                    • SUNY at Binghamton, McMaster University, and Arizona State University have the lowest average completion at 5 years.

                     

                    Degrees Awarded and Time to Complete PhD

                    This data spans the years 2009-2013.

                    Number of Degrees Awarded (Total and Average)

                    • The most degrees awarded 2009 – 2013 by school are (1) CUNY Graduate School and University Center at 53, (2) University of Notre Dame at 46, and (3) University of Toronto at 40 degrees.
                    • The highest average of degrees awarded 2009-2013 by school are (1) CUNY Graduate School and University Center at 10.6, (2) University of Notre Dame at 9.2, and (3) Stony Brook University at 8.5 degrees/year (Note: no data for Stony Brook University in 2013).
                    • Total of 1499 degrees awarded, an average of 4.28 per school per year, from 2009-2013.

                    Here is each school’s numbers:

                    School Total Degrees Awarded Over Period Average of Degrees Awarded Per Year Over Period
                    Total/Average 1499 4.28
                    CUNY Graduate School and University Center 53 10.6
                    University of Notre Dame 46 9.2
                    University of Toronto 40 8
                    Boston College 37 7.4
                    University of Texas at Austin 36 7.2
                    University of Wisconsin-Madison 36 7.2
                    Stony Brook University 34 8.5
                    University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 34 6.8
                    Rutgers University-New Brunswick 32 6.4
                    Loyola University Chicago 31 7.75
                    Massachusetts Institute of Technology 30 6
                    University of Arizona 29 5.8
                    University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) 29 5.8
                    Cornell University 28 5.6
                    Purdue University-West Lafayette 28 5.6
                    Fordham University 27 6.75
                    Boston University 27 5.4
                    Southern Illinois University Carbondale 27 5.4
                    University of California-Los Angeles 27 5.4
                    University of South Florida-Main Campus 27 5.4
                    New York University 26 5.2
                    University of California, Berkeley 26 5.2
                    University of California-Riverside 26 5.2
                    Temple University 25 5
                    Vanderbilt University 25 5
                    Emory University 24 6
                    New School for Social Research 24 6
                    Stanford University 24 6
                    Catholic University of America 24 4.8
                    Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 22 5.5
                    Princeton University 20 5
                    University of Massachusetts Amherst 20 4
                    University of Virginia-Main Campus 20 4
                    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 19 4.75
                    Duquesne University 19 3.8
                    Indiana University-Bloomington 19 3.8
                    University of California-Santa Barbara 19 3.8
                    SUNY at Binghamton 18 4.5
                    McMaster University 18 3.6
                    The Ohio State University-Main Campus 18 3.6
                    Washington University in St. Louis 18 3.6
                    Duke University 17 3.4
                    Syracuse University 17 3.4
                    University of Illinois at Chicago 17 3.4
                    University of California-Davis 16 3.2
                    University of Rochester 16 3.2
                    University of Hawaii at Manoa 14 3.5
                    William Marsh Rice University 14 3.5
                    Arizona State University 14 2.8
                    Bowling Green State University-Main Campus 14 2.8
                    University of Tennessee-Knoxville 14 2.8
                    University of Utah 14 2.8
                    University of Washington-Seattle Campus 14 2.8
                    Michigan State University 13 2.6
                    University of British Columbia (UBC) 13 2.6
                    DePaul University 12 4
                    Saint Louis University-Main Campus 12 3
                    University of Miami 12 2.4
                    University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 12 2.4
                    University of California-Santa Cruz 11 2.75
                    University of Dallas 11 2.75
                    University of Southern California 10 5
                    Johns Hopkins University 10 3.33
                    Indiana University (HPS) 10 2
                    Carnegie Mellon University 9 1.8
                    University of Alberta 9 1.8
                    University of Nebraska-Lincoln 9 1.8
                    University of Pittsburgh (HPS) 9 1.8
                    University of Waterloo 8 1.6
                    University of California-San Diego 7 2.33
                    University of Georgia 7 1.75
                    Texas A & M University 7 1.4
                    University of Cincinnati-Main Campus 7 1.4
                    Claremont Graduate University 5 1
                    Dalhousie University 3 0.6

                     

                    Here is the aggregation of schools over the 5 year period:

                    Year Number of Degrees Awarded Number of Schools Reporting Average Number of Degrees Awarded
                    2009 289 73 3.95
                    2010 357 74 4.82
                    2011 356 74 4.81
                    2012 287 72 3.98
                    2013 210 57 3.68
                    Grand Total 1499 350 4.28

                     



                    Graphically:

                    image image

                     

                    Time to Completion (Average):

                    • The Average time to completion is 6.94 years.
                    • The top 3 schools in terms of highest average time to completion of degree are (1) Claremont Graduate University at 10 years, (2) Syracuse University at 9.6 years, and (3) University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) at 9.45 years.
                    • The top 3 schools in terms of lowest average time to completion of degree are (1) SUNY at Binghamton at 5 years, (1) McMaster University at 5 years, and (1) Arizona State University at 5 years.
                    School Average of Time To Complete Degree Over Period
                    Claremont Graduate University 10.00
                    Syracuse University 9.60
                    University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) 9.45
                    Johns Hopkins University 9.00
                    University of Illinois at Chicago 8.80
                    DePaul University 8.63
                    University of Wisconsin-Madison 8.60
                    Indiana University-Bloomington 8.36
                    Catholic University of America 8.03
                    University of California, Berkeley 7.97
                    Fordham University 7.88
                    Vanderbilt University 7.86
                    Indiana University (HPS) 7.83
                    University of Utah 7.80
                    University of Notre Dame 7.76
                    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 7.70
                    University of California-Los Angeles 7.59
                    Bowling Green State University-Main Campus 7.50
                    University of Dallas 7.50
                    University of Georgia 7.50
                    Duke University 7.42
                    Duquesne University 7.40
                    University of Miami 7.40
                    University of Texas at Austin 7.38
                    William Marsh Rice University 7.25
                    University of California-Santa Barbara 7.21
                    University of Arizona 7.20
                    University of Pittsburgh (HPS) 7.20
                    University of Rochester 7.20
                    Washington University in St. Louis 7.20
                    Boston College 7.16
                    Stony Brook University 7.10
                    Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 7.09
                    The Ohio State University-Main Campus 7.05
                    Boston University 7.00
                    University of Hawaii at Manoa 7.00
                    University of California-Davis 6.99
                    Average 6.94
                    Michigan State University 6.80
                    University of Southern California 6.71
                    Purdue University-West Lafayette 6.70
                    Loyola University Chicago 6.63
                    University of Tennessee-Knoxville 6.58
                    Dalhousie University 6.55
                    Emory University 6.50
                    New York University 6.50
                    University of California-San Diego 6.40
                    University of Nebraska-Lincoln 6.40
                    University of California-Riverside 6.30
                    Princeton University 6.29
                    University of Massachusetts Amherst 6.20
                    University of South Florida-Main Campus 6.19
                    Cornell University 6.18
                    University of Virginia-Main Campus 6.10
                    University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 6.02
                    Temple University 6.00
                    Texas A & M University 6.00
                    University of California-Santa Cruz 6.00
                    University of Cincinnati-Main Campus 6.00
                    Stanford University 5.94
                    Saint Louis University-Main Campus 5.83
                    Massachusetts Institute of Technology 5.70
                    Southern Illinois University Carbondale 5.70
                    Carnegie Mellon University 5.69
                    University of Washington-Seattle Campus 5.68
                    University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 5.24
                    Rutgers University-New Brunswick 5.20
                    Arizona State University 5.00
                    McMaster University 5.00
                    SUNY at Binghamton 5.00

                     

                    Here is the aggregation of schools over the 5 year period:

                    Year Average of Time To Complete
                    2009 6.827540984
                    2010 7.066060606
                    2011 6.936119403
                    2012 7.021967213
                    2013 6.812586207

                     

                    Graphically:

                    image

                    Further Information

                    Visit our other reports on the APA 2013 Graduate Guide’s data

                    Visit our other philosophy placement reports based on each school’s placement data

                    pr_phd4_thumb Graduate Student Philosophy Placement Records 

                    pr_terminalma_thumb2_thumb

                     Terminal MA Placement Report

                    pr_prestige_thumb2_thumb

                     The “Prestige” Report

                    pr_contential[5] The Continental Philosophy Report

                    If you have any suggestions about how to make this report better, or would like to report updates to the APA Graduate Guide to include in this report, please send me an email.  Also, contact the APA directly for more information about this data.

                    Thanks,

                    Andy Carson
                    pn_logo16x16_thumb1Philosophy News

                     

                    We’d like to thank Amy E. Ferrer, Executive Director, The American Philosophical Association, University of Delaware, for approving the use of this data, providing useful feedback, and for approving these reports for publication.

                    Report on the APA 2013 Graduate Guide: Faculty

                    Philosophy News's analysis and report on the data contained in The American Philosophical Association's (APA) 2013 Guide to Graduate Programs in Philosophy. We report on findings such as ratio of tenure track positions to non-tenure track, the ratio of women faculty to men, and which school has the most total faculty in philosophy.

                    APA LogoThe American Philosophical Association (APA) puts out an annual Guide to Graduate Programs in Philosophy.  The following statistics come completely from aggregating and compiling the data found in the 2013 guide.

                    Note: All data are self-reported by the departments in question and cannot be guaranteed accurate.  Furthermore, this is not a random or necessarily representative sample of philosophy programs as it contains information from only those schools that completed the 2013 Graduate Guide survey.

                    Summary of Findings:

                    • 73% of faculty are tenured; 15% are TT (tenure track); 11% are non-TT
                    • The University of Toronto has the most total faculty at 62.
                    • No school has more women faculty than men.
                    • The top school by ratio of the number of women that are faculty compared with the total number of faculty is San Francisco State University at 50%.
                    • The average is 75% men and 25% women faculty members.
                    • The average ratio of tenured men to all tenured faculty is 77%.
                    • On average, 63% of TT faculty are men.
                    • The percentage of men in Non-TT positions to all Non-TT positions is 72%.

                    Faculty (All):

                    The following table shows each school listed in the 2013 guide, along with its faculty totals.  From this, we can see that

                    • Of the 1836 faculty listed, 73% (1346) are tenured, 15% (282) are TT, and 11% (208) are non-TT.
                    • The University of Toronto has the most total faculty at 62, followed by Notre Dame at 38, and CUNY at 38.
                    Schools Sum of Tenured Sum of TT Sum of Non TT Sum of Total
                    University of Toronto 47 4 11 62
                    University of Notre Dame 34 4 0 38
                    CUNY Graduate School and University Center 38 0 0 38
                    University of Texas at Austin 26 4 5 35
                    Stanford University 21 3 8 32
                    Fordham University 24 7 1 32
                    New York University 22 2 7 31
                    Rutgers University-New Brunswick 23 6 0 29
                    Loyola University Chicago 24 4 0 28
                    Colorado State University 11 2 14 27
                    Boston College 16 5 6 27
                    University of Arizona 15 11 0 26
                    University of Alberta 17 3 6 26
                    Catholic University of America 16 7 2 25
                    University of California, Berkeley 20 2 3 25
                    Princeton University 18 6 0 24
                    Michigan State University 16 5 3 24
                    Tufts University 11 3 10 24
                    Texas A & M University 20 3 1 24
                    University of Southern California 20 3 0 23
                    University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 21 2 0 23
                    Boston University 17 6 0 23
                    University of British Columbia (UBC) 20 1 2 23
                    Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 13 2 7 22
                    Gonzaga University 18 1 3 22
                    University of Houston 9 11 1 21
                    The Ohio State University-Main Campus 18 3 0 21
                    University of Tennessee-Knoxville 4 6 11 21
                    Cornell University 15 3 3 21
                    University of Washington-Seattle Campus 14 3 4 21
                    Stony Brook University 20 0 1 21
                    Syracuse University 14 6 1 21
                    DePaul University 19 1 0 20
                    Purdue University-West Lafayette 18 2 0 20
                    Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 7 3 10 20
                    University of Wisconsin-Madison 12 6 2 20
                    Carnegie Mellon University 14 1 5 20
                    Saint Louis University-Main Campus 17 2 0 19
                    University of Guelph 19 0 0 19
                    University of California-San Diego 17 1 1 19
                    University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) 13 5 1 19
                    Washington University in St. Louis 15 3 0 18
                    Emory University 12 5 1 18
                    Duquesne University 12 1 5 18
                    Georgia State University 12 3 3 18
                    San Jose State University 10 0 8 18
                    University of Virginia-Main Campus 15 2 0 17
                    Loyola Marymount University 14 3 0 17
                    Arizona State University 12 1 4 17
                    University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 12 4 1 17
                    University of Illinois at Chicago 13 4 0 17
                    University of Utah 12 3 2 17
                    University of California-Los Angeles 12 4 1 17
                    University of Miami 13 3 0 16
                    McMaster University 12 2 2 16
                    University of South Florida-Main Campus 12 4 0 16
                    Duke University 12 3 1 16
                    University of California-Riverside 14 2 0 16
                    University of Georgia 13 2 1 16
                    University of Cincinnati-Main Campus 11 3 1 15
                    Indiana University-Bloomington 12 2 1 15
                    University of Waterloo 11 3 1 15
                    University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 11 4 0 15
                    Northern Illinois University 10 2 3 15
                    Vanderbilt University 14 1 0 15
                    University of Manitoba 10 4 0 14
                    University of Massachusetts Amherst 10 4 0 14
                    Temple University 8 2 4 14
                    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 10 2 2 14
                    San Diego State University 7 0 7 14
                    University of Windsor 9 0 4 13
                    University of Nebraska-Lincoln 10 2 1 13
                    University of Hawaii at Manoa 10 3 0 13
                    Kent State University at Kent 10 2 1 13
                    Southern Illinois University Carbondale 13 0 0 13
                    Johns Hopkins University 10 2 0 12
                    University of California-Santa Barbara 12 0 0 12
                    Brandeis University 8 3 1 12
                    University of California-Davis 12 0 0 12
                    SUNY at Binghamton 11 1 0 12
                    San Francisco State University 8 3 1 12
                    William Marsh Rice University 9 3 0 12
                    University of Rochester 8 3 1 12
                    University of North Florida 5 5 1 11
                    Texas Tech University 6 3 2 11
                    New School for Social Research 7 4 0 11
                    Bowling Green State University-Main Campus 6 3 2 11
                    Massachusetts Institute of Technology 8 3 0 11
                    Dalhousie University 6 2 2 10
                    University of California-Santa Cruz 7 0 3 10
                    Ohio University-Main Campus 8 0 2 10
                    Louisiana State University 7 2 0 9
                    University of Dallas 9 0 0 9
                    Virginia Tech 5 4 0 9
                    University of Pittsburgh (HPS) 8 1 0 9
                    Indiana University (HPS) 9 0 0 9
                    University of Toledo 5 2 1 8
                    Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology 0 0 8 8
                    Eastern Michigan University 4 3 0 7
                    University of Wyoming 5 0 1 6
                    Florida State University 5 1 0 6
                    University of Mississippi 4 2 0 6
                    Claremont Graduate University 3 0 0 3
                    Grand Total 1346 282 208 1836

                     

                    Tenured:

                    Looking at percentages by each school, we can see that:

                    • Many schools are made up entirely of Tenured faculty: CUNY Graduate School and University Center, University of Guelph, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, University of California-Santa Barbara, University of California-Davis, University of Dallas, Indiana University (HPS), and Claremont Graduate University
                    • Several schools have less than 50% of faculty that are Tenured: Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology, University of Tennessee-Knoxville, Oklahoma State University-Main Campus, Colorado State University, University of Houston, University of North Florida, and Tufts University.
                    Schools Tenured/Total
                    CUNY Graduate School and University Center 1
                    University of Guelph 1
                    Southern Illinois University Carbondale 1
                    University of California-Santa Barbara 1
                    University of California-Davis 1
                    University of Dallas 1
                    Indiana University (HPS) 1
                    Claremont Graduate University 1
                    Stony Brook University 0.952381
                    DePaul University 0.95
                    Vanderbilt University 0.933333
                    SUNY at Binghamton 0.916667
                    University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 0.913043
                    Purdue University-West Lafayette 0.9
                    University of Notre Dame 0.894737
                    Saint Louis University-Main Campus 0.894737
                    University of California-San Diego 0.894737
                    University of Pittsburgh (HPS) 0.888889
                    University of Virginia-Main Campus 0.882353
                    University of California-Riverside 0.875
                    University of Southern California 0.869565
                    University of British Columbia (UBC) 0.869565
                    Loyola University Chicago 0.857143
                    The Ohio State University-Main Campus 0.857143
                    Texas A & M University 0.833333
                    Washington University in St. Louis 0.833333
                    Johns Hopkins University 0.833333
                    University of Wyoming 0.833333
                    Florida State University 0.833333
                    Loyola Marymount University 0.823529
                    Gonzaga University 0.818182
                    University of Miami 0.8125
                    University of Georgia 0.8125
                    University of California, Berkeley 0.8
                    Indiana University-Bloomington 0.8
                    Ohio University-Main Campus 0.8
                    Rutgers University-New Brunswick 0.793103
                    Louisiana State University 0.777778
                    University of Nebraska-Lincoln 0.769231
                    University of Hawaii at Manoa 0.769231
                    Kent State University at Kent 0.769231
                    University of Illinois at Chicago 0.764706
                    University of Toronto 0.758065
                    Fordham University 0.75
                    Princeton University 0.75
                    McMaster University 0.75
                    University of South Florida-Main Campus 0.75
                    Duke University 0.75
                    William Marsh Rice University 0.75
                    University of Texas at Austin 0.742857
                    Boston University 0.73913
                    University of Cincinnati-Main Campus 0.733333
                    University of Waterloo 0.733333
                    University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 0.733333
                    Average 0.733115
                    Massachusetts Institute of Technology 0.727273
                    Cornell University 0.714286
                    University of Manitoba 0.714286
                    University of Massachusetts Amherst 0.714286
                    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 0.714286
                    New York University 0.709677
                    Arizona State University 0.705882
                    University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 0.705882
                    University of Utah 0.705882
                    University of California-Los Angeles 0.705882
                    Carnegie Mellon University 0.7
                    University of California-Santa Cruz 0.7
                    University of Windsor 0.692308
                    University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) 0.684211
                    Michigan State University 0.666667
                    University of Washington-Seattle Campus 0.666667
                    Syracuse University 0.666667
                    Emory University 0.666667
                    Duquesne University 0.666667
                    Georgia State University 0.666667
                    Northern Illinois University 0.666667
                    Brandeis University 0.666667
                    San Francisco State University 0.666667
                    University of Rochester 0.666667
                    University of Mississippi 0.666667
                    Stanford University 0.65625
                    University of Alberta 0.653846
                    Catholic University of America 0.64
                    New School for Social Research 0.636364
                    University of Toledo 0.625
                    University of Wisconsin-Madison 0.6
                    Dalhousie University 0.6
                    Boston College 0.592593
                    Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 0.590909
                    University of Arizona 0.576923
                    Temple University 0.571429
                    Eastern Michigan University 0.571429
                    San Jose State University 0.555556
                    Virginia Tech 0.555556
                    Texas Tech University 0.545455
                    Bowling Green State University-Main Campus 0.545455
                    San Diego State University 0.5
                    Tufts University 0.458333
                    University of North Florida 0.454545
                    University of Houston 0.428571
                    Colorado State University 0.407407
                    Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 0.35
                    University of Tennessee-Knoxville 0.190476
                    Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology 0

                     

                    Tenure-Track:

                    • Only one school (University of Houston) has more than 50% of it’s faculty in TT positions.
                    • Many schools have no faculty in TT positions::CUNY Graduate School and University Center, University of Guelph, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, University of California-Santa Barbara, University of California-Davis, University of Dallas, Indiana University (HPS), Claremont Graduate University, Stony Brook University, University of Wyoming, Ohio University-Main Campus, University of California-Santa Cruz, University of Windsor, San Jose State University, San Diego State University, and Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology.
                    Schools TT/Total
                    University of Houston 0.52381
                    University of North Florida 0.454545
                    Virginia Tech 0.444444
                    Eastern Michigan University 0.428571
                    University of Arizona 0.423077
                    New School for Social Research 0.363636
                    University of Mississippi 0.333333
                    University of Wisconsin-Madison 0.3
                    University of Manitoba 0.285714
                    University of Massachusetts Amherst 0.285714
                    Syracuse University 0.285714
                    University of Tennessee-Knoxville 0.285714
                    Catholic University of America 0.28
                    Emory University 0.277778
                    Massachusetts Institute of Technology 0.272727
                    Texas Tech University 0.272727
                    Bowling Green State University-Main Campus 0.272727
                    University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 0.266667
                    University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) 0.263158
                    Boston University 0.26087
                    Princeton University 0.25
                    University of South Florida-Main Campus 0.25
                    William Marsh Rice University 0.25
                    Brandeis University 0.25
                    San Francisco State University 0.25
                    University of Rochester 0.25
                    University of Toledo 0.25
                    University of Illinois at Chicago 0.235294
                    University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 0.235294
                    University of California-Los Angeles 0.235294
                    University of Hawaii at Manoa 0.230769
                    Louisiana State University 0.222222
                    Fordham University 0.21875
                    Michigan State University 0.208333
                    Rutgers University-New Brunswick 0.206897
                    University of Cincinnati-Main Campus 0.2
                    University of Waterloo 0.2
                    Dalhousie University 0.2
                    University of Miami 0.1875
                    Duke University 0.1875
                    Boston College 0.185185
                    Loyola Marymount University 0.176471
                    University of Utah 0.176471
                    Washington University in St. Louis 0.166667
                    Johns Hopkins University 0.166667
                    Florida State University 0.166667
                    Georgia State University 0.166667
                    University of Nebraska-Lincoln 0.153846
                    Kent State University at Kent 0.153846
                    Average 0.153595
                    Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 0.15
                    Loyola University Chicago 0.142857
                    The Ohio State University-Main Campus 0.142857
                    Cornell University 0.142857
                    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 0.142857
                    University of Washington-Seattle Campus 0.142857
                    Temple University 0.142857
                    Indiana University-Bloomington 0.133333
                    Northern Illinois University 0.133333
                    University of Southern California 0.130435
                    University of California-Riverside 0.125
                    Texas A & M University 0.125
                    University of Georgia 0.125
                    McMaster University 0.125
                    Tufts University 0.125
                    University of Virginia-Main Campus 0.117647
                    University of Alberta 0.115385
                    University of Texas at Austin 0.114286
                    University of Pittsburgh (HPS) 0.111111
                    University of Notre Dame 0.105263
                    Saint Louis University-Main Campus 0.105263
                    Purdue University-West Lafayette 0.1
                    Stanford University 0.09375
                    Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 0.090909
                    University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 0.086957
                    SUNY at Binghamton 0.083333
                    University of California, Berkeley 0.08
                    Colorado State University 0.074074
                    Vanderbilt University 0.066667
                    University of Toronto 0.064516
                    New York University 0.064516
                    Arizona State University 0.058824
                    Duquesne University 0.055556
                    University of California-San Diego 0.052632
                    DePaul University 0.05
                    Carnegie Mellon University 0.05
                    Gonzaga University 0.045455
                    University of British Columbia (UBC) 0.043478
                    CUNY Graduate School and University Center 0
                    University of Guelph 0
                    Southern Illinois University Carbondale 0
                    University of California-Santa Barbara 0
                    University of California-Davis 0
                    University of Dallas 0
                    Indiana University (HPS) 0
                    Claremont Graduate University 0
                    Stony Brook University 0
                    University of Wyoming 0
                    Ohio University-Main Campus 0
                    University of California-Santa Cruz 0
                    University of Windsor 0
                    San Jose State University 0
                    San Diego State University 0
                    Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology 0


                     

                    Non-Tenure-Track:

                    • Three schools have more than 50% of their faculty in Non-TT positions: Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology, University of Tennessee-Knoxville, and Colorado State University
                    • 43/104 schools (41%) do not have any Non-TT faculty.
                    Schools Non-TT/Total
                    Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology 1
                    University of Tennessee-Knoxville 0.52381
                    Colorado State University 0.518519
                    Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 0.5
                    San Diego State University 0.5
                    San Jose State University 0.444444
                    Tufts University 0.416667
                    Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 0.318182
                    University of Windsor 0.307692
                    University of California-Santa Cruz 0.3
                    Temple University 0.285714
                    Duquesne University 0.277778
                    Stanford University 0.25
                    Carnegie Mellon University 0.25
                    Arizona State University 0.235294
                    University of Alberta 0.230769
                    New York University 0.225806
                    Boston College 0.222222
                    Dalhousie University 0.2
                    Northern Illinois University 0.2
                    Ohio University-Main Campus 0.2
                    University of Washington-Seattle Campus 0.190476
                    Texas Tech University 0.181818
                    Bowling Green State University-Main Campus 0.181818
                    University of Toronto 0.177419
                    Georgia State University 0.166667
                    University of Wyoming 0.166667
                    Cornell University 0.142857
                    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 0.142857
                    University of Texas at Austin 0.142857
                    Gonzaga University 0.136364
                    University of Toledo 0.125
                    Michigan State University 0.125
                    McMaster University 0.125
                    University of California, Berkeley 0.12
                    University of Utah 0.117647
                    Grand Total 0.11329
                    University of Wisconsin-Madison 0.1
                    University of North Florida 0.090909
                    University of British Columbia (UBC) 0.086957
                    Brandeis University 0.083333
                    San Francisco State University 0.083333
                    University of Rochester 0.083333
                    Catholic University of America 0.08
                    University of Nebraska-Lincoln 0.076923
                    Kent State University at Kent 0.076923
                    University of Cincinnati-Main Campus 0.066667
                    University of Waterloo 0.066667
                    Indiana University-Bloomington 0.066667
                    Duke University 0.0625
                    University of Georgia 0.0625
                    University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 0.058824
                    University of California-Los Angeles 0.058824
                    Emory University 0.055556
                    University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) 0.052632
                    University of California-San Diego 0.052632
                    University of Houston 0.047619
                    Syracuse University 0.047619
                    Stony Brook University 0.047619
                    Texas A & M University 0.041667
                    Fordham University 0.03125
                    Virginia Tech 0
                    Eastern Michigan University 0
                    University of Arizona 0
                    New School for Social Research 0
                    University of Mississippi 0
                    University of Manitoba 0
                    University of Massachusetts Amherst 0
                    Massachusetts Institute of Technology 0
                    University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 0
                    Boston University 0
                    Princeton University 0
                    University of South Florida-Main Campus 0
                    William Marsh Rice University 0
                    University of Illinois at Chicago 0
                    University of Hawaii at Manoa 0
                    Louisiana State University 0
                    Rutgers University-New Brunswick 0
                    University of Miami 0
                    Loyola Marymount University 0
                    Washington University in St. Louis 0
                    Johns Hopkins University 0
                    Florida State University 0
                    Loyola University Chicago 0
                    The Ohio State University-Main Campus 0
                    University of Southern California 0
                    University of California-Riverside 0
                    University of Virginia-Main Campus 0
                    University of Pittsburgh (HPS) 0
                    University of Notre Dame 0
                    Saint Louis University-Main Campus 0
                    Purdue University-West Lafayette 0
                    University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 0
                    SUNY at Binghamton 0
                    Vanderbilt University 0
                    DePaul University 0
                    CUNY Graduate School and University Center 0
                    University of Guelph 0
                    Southern Illinois University Carbondale 0
                    University of California-Santa Barbara 0
                    University of California-Davis 0
                    University of Dallas 0
                    Indiana University (HPS) 0
                    Claremont Graduate University 0

                     

                    Faculty (By Gender):

                    Let’s add another layer of complexity by analyzing this data by gender.  Here is the first list again, with each school broken out by gender.  Note: “Other Gender”" was listed as an acceptable choice in the APA survey.  However, no schools reported faculty with a gender of “Other”, so I am leaving it out of the tables for the sake of space.

                    School Gender Sum of Tenured Sum of TT Sum of Non TT Sum of Total
                    University of Toronto Men 33 2 8 43
                    University of Toronto Women 14 2 3 19
                    University of Notre Dame Men 29 3 0 32
                    University of Notre Dame Women 5 1 0 6
                    CUNY Graduate School and University Center Men 31 0 0 31
                    CUNY Graduate School and University Center Women 7 0 0 7
                    University of Texas at Austin Men 23 2 3 28
                    University of Texas at Austin Women 3 2 2 7
                    Stanford University Men 16 2 7 25
                    Stanford University Women 5 1 1 7
                    Fordham University Men 18 5 1 24
                    Fordham University Women 6 2 0 8
                    New York University Men 19 0 3 22
                    New York University Women 3 2 4 9
                    Rutgers University-New Brunswick Men 20 3 0 23
                    Rutgers University-New Brunswick Women 3 3 0 6
                    Loyola University Chicago Men 18 2 0 20
                    Loyola University Chicago Women 6 2 0 8
                    Colorado State University Men 8 2 11 21
                    Colorado State University Women 3 0 3 6
                    Boston College Men 13 4 4 21
                    Boston College Women 3 1 2 6
                    University of Arizona Men 13 7 0 20
                    University of Arizona Women 2 4 0 6
                    University of Alberta Men 11 2 6 19
                    University of Alberta Women 6 1 0 7
                    Catholic University of America Men 13 5 2 20
                    Catholic University of America Women 3 2 0 5
                    University of California, Berkeley Men 15 1 2 18
                    University of California, Berkeley Women 5 1 1 7
                    Princeton University Men 15 5 0 20
                    Princeton University Women 3 1 0 4
                    Michigan State University Men 13 3 2 18
                    Michigan State University Women 3 2 1 6
                    Tufts University Men 9 2 6 17
                    Tufts University Women 2 1 4 7
                    Texas A & M University Men 17 2 1 20
                    Texas A & M University Women 3 1 0 4
                    University of Southern California Men 16 2 0 18
                    University of Southern California Women 4 1 0 5
                    University of Michigan-Ann Arbor Men 16 1 0 17
                    University of Michigan-Ann Arbor Women 5 1 0 6
                    Boston University Men 15 5 0 20
                    Boston University Women 2 1 0 3
                    University of British Columbia (UBC) Men 17 0 2 19
                    University of British Columbia (UBC) Women 3 1 0 4
                    Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus Men 7 1 5 13
                    Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus Women 6 1 2 9
                    Gonzaga University Men 16 1 3 20
                    Gonzaga University Women 2 0 0 2
                    University of Houston Men 6 8 1 15
                    University of Houston Women 3 3 0 6
                    The Ohio State University-Main Campus Men 14 1 0 15
                    The Ohio State University-Main Campus Women 4 2 0 6
                    University of Tennessee-Knoxville Men 4 5 8 17
                    University of Tennessee-Knoxville Women 0 1 3 4
                    Cornell University Men 11 1 2 14
                    Cornell University Women 4 2 1 7
                    University of Washington-Seattle Campus Men 9 1 2 12
                    University of Washington-Seattle Campus Women 5 2 2 9
                    Stony Brook University Men 15 0 0 15
                    Stony Brook University Women 5 0 1 6
                    Syracuse University Men 12 3 1 16
                    Syracuse University Women 2 3 0 5
                    DePaul University Men 12 1 0 13
                    DePaul University Women 7 0 0 7
                    Purdue University-West Lafayette Men 16 0 0 16
                    Purdue University-West Lafayette Women 2 2 0 4
                    Oklahoma State University-Main Campus Men 6 1 6 13
                    Oklahoma State University-Main Campus Women 1 2 4 7
                    University of Wisconsin-Madison Men 10 4 1 15
                    University of Wisconsin-Madison Women 2 2 1 5
                    Carnegie Mellon University Men 12 1 3 16
                    Carnegie Mellon University Women 2 0 2 4
                    Saint Louis University-Main Campus Men 14 1 0 15
                    Saint Louis University-Main Campus Women 3 1 0 4
                    University of Guelph Men 12 0 0 12
                    University of Guelph Women 7 0 0 7
                    University of California-San Diego Men 14 1 1 16
                    University of California-San Diego Women 3 0 0 3
                    University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) Men 12 3 1 16
                    University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) Women 1 2 0 3
                    Washington University in St. Louis Men 11 1 0 12
                    Washington University in St. Louis Women 4 2 0 6
                    Emory University Men 8 2 1 11
                    Emory University Women 4 3 0 7
                    Duquesne University Men 9 1 3 13
                    Duquesne University Women 3 0 2 5
                    Georgia State University Men 10 2 2 14
                    Georgia State University Women 2 1 1 4
                    San Jose State University Men 7 0 5 12
                    San Jose State University Women 3 0 3 6
                    University of Virginia-Main Campus Men 12 0 0 12
                    University of Virginia-Main Campus Women 3 2 0 5
                    Loyola Marymount University Men 12 1 0 13
                    Loyola Marymount University Women 2 2 0 4
                    Arizona State University Men 8 0 3 11
                    Arizona State University Women 4 1 1 6
                    University of Oklahoma Norman Campus Men 9 2 1 12
                    University of Oklahoma Norman Campus Women 3 2 0 5
                    University of Illinois at Chicago Men 8 4 0 12
                    University of Illinois at Chicago Women 5 0 0 5
                    University of Utah Men 6 3 2 11
                    University of Utah Women 6 0 0 6
                    University of California-Los Angeles Men 9 3 1 13
                    University of California-Los Angeles Women 3 1 0 4
                    University of Miami Men 11 3 0 14
                    University of Miami Women 2 0 0 2
                    McMaster University Men 6 2 2 10
                    McMaster University Women 6 0 0 6
                    University of South Florida-Main Campus Men 10 4 0 14
                    University of South Florida-Main Campus Women 2 0 0 2
                    Duke University Men 11 1 0 12
                    Duke University Women 1 2 1 4
                    University of California-Riverside Men 12 1 0 13
                    University of California-Riverside Women 2 1 0 3
                    University of Georgia Men 8 0 1 9
                    University of Georgia Women 5 2 0 7
                    University of Cincinnati-Main Campus Men 8 2 1 11
                    University of Cincinnati-Main Campus Women 3 1 0 4
                    Indiana University-Bloomington Men 8 1 0 9
                    Indiana University-Bloomington Women 4 1 1 6
                    University of Waterloo Men 6 3 1 10
                    University of Waterloo Women 5 0 0 5
                    University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Men 9 3 0 12
                    University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Women 2 1 0 3
                    Northern Illinois University Men 8 2 2 12
                    Northern Illinois University Women 2 0 1 3
                    Vanderbilt University Men 10 1 0 11
                    Vanderbilt University Women 4 0 0 4
                    University of Manitoba Men 7 2 0 9
                    University of Manitoba Women 3 2 0 5
                    University of Massachusetts Amherst Men 8 2 0 10
                    University of Massachusetts Amherst Women 2 2 0 4
                    Temple University Men 5 1 3 9
                    Temple University Women 3 1 1 5
                    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Men 8 1 2 11
                    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Women 2 1 0 3
                    San Diego State University Men 6 0 4 10
                    San Diego State University Women 1 0 3 4
                    University of Windsor Men 7 0 3 10
                    University of Windsor Women 2 0 1 3
                    University of Nebraska-Lincoln Men 8 2 0 10
                    University of Nebraska-Lincoln Women 2 0 1 3
                    University of Hawaii at Manoa Men 8 2 0 10
                    University of Hawaii at Manoa Women 2 1 0 3
                    Kent State University at Kent Men 6 1 1 8
                    Kent State University at Kent Women 4 1 0 5
                    Southern Illinois University Carbondale Men 12 0 0 12
                    Southern Illinois University Carbondale Women 1 0 0 1
                    Johns Hopkins University Men 8 1 0 9
                    Johns Hopkins University Women 2 1 0 3
                    University of California-Santa Barbara Men 10 0 0 10
                    University of California-Santa Barbara Women 2 0 0 2
                    Brandeis University Men 7 1 1 9
                    Brandeis University Women 1 2 0 3
                    University of California-Davis Men 9 0 0 9
                    University of California-Davis Women 3 0 0 3
                    SUNY at Binghamton Men 6 1 0 7
                    SUNY at Binghamton Women 5 0 0 5
                    San Francisco State University Men 2 3 1 6
                    San Francisco State University Women 6 0 0 6
                    William Marsh Rice University Men 9 0 0 9
                    William Marsh Rice University Women 0 3 0 3
                    University of Rochester Men 6 2 1 9
                    University of Rochester Women 2 1 0 3
                    University of North Florida Men 4 3 1 8
                    University of North Florida Women 1 2 0 3
                    Texas Tech University Men 4 3 2 9
                    Texas Tech University Women 2 0 0 2
                    New School for Social Research Men 5 2 0 7
                    New School for Social Research Women 2 2 0 4
                    Bowling Green State University-Main Campus Men 5 2 2 9
                    Bowling Green State University-Main Campus Women 1 1 0 2
                    Massachusetts Institute of Technology Men 7 2 0 9
                    Massachusetts Institute of Technology Women 1 1 0 2
                    Dalhousie University Men 5 1 1 7
                    Dalhousie University Women 1 1 1 3
                    University of California-Santa Cruz Men 7 0 1 8
                    University of California-Santa Cruz Women 0 0 2 2
                    Ohio University-Main Campus Men 6 0 2 8
                    Ohio University-Main Campus Women 2 0 0 2
                    Louisiana State University Men 6 1 0 7
                    Louisiana State University Women 1 1 0 2
                    University of Dallas Men 9 0 0 9
                    University of Dallas Women 0 0 0 0
                    Virginia Tech Men 3 4 0 7
                    Virginia Tech Women 2 0 0 2
                    University of Pittsburgh (HPS) Men 7 0 0 7
                    University of Pittsburgh (HPS) Women 1 1 0 2
                    Indiana University (HPS) Men 7 0 0 7
                    Indiana University (HPS) Women 2 0 0 2
                    University of Toledo Men 3 1 1 5
                    University of Toledo Women 2 1 0 3
                    Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology Men 0 0 6 6
                    Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology Women 0 0 2 2
                    Eastern Michigan University Men 1 3 0 4
                    Eastern Michigan University Women 3 0 0 3
                    University of Wyoming Men 4 0 1 5
                    University of Wyoming Women 1 0 0 1
                    Florida State University Men 3 1 0 4
                    Florida State University Women 2 0 0 2
                    University of Mississippi Men 4 2 0 6
                    University of Mississippi Women 0 0 0 0
                    Claremont Graduate University Men 2 0 0 2
                    Claremont Graduate University Women 1 0 0 1
                    Grand Total 1346 282 208 1836

                     

                    These are the absolute counts.  Let’s look at these by percentages as before.  First, what is the ratio of the number of men to the number of faculty in the department?  The list below contains an ordered list.  Some initial observations:

                    • The top three schools by ratio of the number of men that are faculty compared with the total number of faculty are (1) University of Dallas at 100%, (1) University of Mississippi at 100%, and (3) Southern Illinois University, Carbondale at 92%.
                    • No school has more women faculty than men. 
                    • The top three schools by ratio of the number of women that are faculty compared with the total number of faculty are (1) San Francisco State University at 50%, (2) University of Georgia at 44%, and (3) University of Washington-Seattle Campus and Eastern Michigan University at 43%.
                    • The average is 75% men and 25% women faculty members.
                    School RatioMen/All
                    University of Dallas 1.00
                    University of Mississippi 1.00
                    Southern Illinois University Carbondale 0.92
                    Gonzaga University 0.91
                    University of Miami 0.88
                    University of South Florida-Main Campus 0.88
                    Boston University 0.87
                    University of California-San Diego 0.84
                    University of Notre Dame 0.84
                    University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) 0.84
                    Princeton University 0.83
                    Texas A & M University 0.83
                    University of California-Santa Barbara 0.83
                    University of Wyoming 0.83
                    University of British Columbia (UBC) 0.83
                    Bowling Green State University-Main Campus 0.82
                    Massachusetts Institute of Technology 0.82
                    Texas Tech University 0.82
                    CUNY Graduate School and University Center 0.82
                    University of California-Riverside 0.81
                    University of Tennessee-Knoxville 0.81
                    Carnegie Mellon University 0.80
                    Catholic University of America 0.80
                    Northern Illinois University 0.80
                    Ohio University-Main Campus 0.80
                    Purdue University-West Lafayette 0.80
                    University of California-Santa Cruz 0.80
                    University of Texas at Austin 0.80
                    University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 0.80
                    Rutgers University-New Brunswick 0.79
                    Saint Louis University-Main Campus 0.79
                    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 0.79
                    University of Southern California 0.78
                    Stanford University 0.78
                    Boston College 0.78
                    Colorado State University 0.78
                    Georgia State University 0.78
                    Indiana University (HPS) 0.78
                    Louisiana State University 0.78
                    University of Pittsburgh (HPS) 0.78
                    Virginia Tech 0.78
                    University of Arizona 0.77
                    University of Hawaii at Manoa 0.77
                    University of Nebraska-Lincoln 0.77
                    University of Windsor 0.77
                    Loyola Marymount University 0.76
                    University of California-Los Angeles 0.76
                    Syracuse University 0.76
                    Brandeis University 0.75
                    Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology 0.75
                    Duke University 0.75
                    Fordham University 0.75
                    Johns Hopkins University 0.75
                    Michigan State University 0.75
                    University of California-Davis 0.75
                    University of Rochester 0.75
                    University of Wisconsin-Madison 0.75
                    William Marsh Rice University 0.75
                    Average 0.75
                    University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 0.74
                    University of Cincinnati-Main Campus 0.73
                    Vanderbilt University 0.73
                    University of Alberta 0.73
                    University of North Florida 0.73
                    Duquesne University 0.72
                    University of California, Berkeley 0.72
                    Loyola University Chicago 0.71
                    San Diego State University 0.71
                    Stony Brook University 0.71
                    The Ohio State University-Main Campus 0.71
                    University of Houston 0.71
                    University of Massachusetts Amherst 0.71
                    New York University 0.71
                    Tufts University 0.71
                    University of Illinois at Chicago 0.71
                    University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 0.71
                    University of Virginia-Main Campus 0.71
                    Dalhousie University 0.70
                    University of Toronto 0.69
                    Claremont Graduate University 0.67
                    Cornell University 0.67
                    Florida State University 0.67
                    San Jose State University 0.67
                    University of Waterloo 0.67
                    Washington University in St. Louis 0.67
                    DePaul University 0.65
                    Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 0.65
                    Arizona State University 0.65
                    University of Utah 0.65
                    Temple University 0.64
                    University of Manitoba 0.64
                    New School for Social Research 0.64
                    University of Guelph 0.63
                    McMaster University 0.63
                    University of Toledo 0.63
                    Kent State University at Kent 0.62
                    Emory University 0.61
                    Indiana University-Bloomington 0.60
                    Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 0.59
                    SUNY at Binghamton 0.58
                    Eastern Michigan University 0.57
                    University of Washington-Seattle Campus 0.57
                    University of Georgia 0.56
                    San Francisco State University 0.50

                     

                    Now let’s break it up by job type.

                    Tenured:

                    • The University of Dallas, University of Mississippi, University of Tennessee-Knoxville, University of California-Santa Cruz, and William Marsh Rice University all only have men as tenured faculty.
                    • Only two schools have more tenured women than tenured men: San Francisco State University and Eastern Michigan University have 75% tenured faculty that are women. 
                    • The average ratio of tenured men to all tenured faculty is 77%.
                    School RatioMenTenuredToAllTenured
                    University of Dallas 1.00
                    University of Mississippi 1.00
                    University of Tennessee-Knoxville 1.00
                    University of California-Santa Cruz 1.00
                    William Marsh Rice University 1.00
                    Southern Illinois University Carbondale 0.92
                    University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) 0.92
                    Duke University 0.92
                    Gonzaga University 0.89
                    Purdue University-West Lafayette 0.89
                    University of Texas at Austin 0.88
                    Boston University 0.88
                    Massachusetts Institute of Technology 0.88
                    University of Pittsburgh (HPS) 0.88
                    Brandeis University 0.88
                    Rutgers University-New Brunswick 0.87
                    University of Arizona 0.87
                    New York University 0.86
                    University of California-Riverside 0.86
                    Carnegie Mellon University 0.86
                    Louisiana State University 0.86
                    Loyola Marymount University 0.86
                    Syracuse University 0.86
                    San Diego State University 0.86
                    Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 0.86
                    University of Notre Dame 0.85
                    Texas A & M University 0.85
                    University of British Columbia (UBC) 0.85
                    University of Miami 0.85
                    University of South Florida-Main Campus 0.83
                    Princeton University 0.83
                    University of California-Santa Barbara 0.83
                    Bowling Green State University-Main Campus 0.83
                    Georgia State University 0.83
                    University of Wisconsin-Madison 0.83
                    Dalhousie University 0.83
                    University of California-San Diego 0.82
                    Saint Louis University-Main Campus 0.82
                    University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 0.82
                    Tufts University 0.82
                    CUNY Graduate School and University Center 0.82
                    Catholic University of America 0.81
                    Boston College 0.81
                    Michigan State University 0.81
                    University of Wyoming 0.80
                    Northern Illinois University 0.80
                    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 0.80
                    University of Southern California 0.80
                    University of Hawaii at Manoa 0.80
                    University of Nebraska-Lincoln 0.80
                    Johns Hopkins University 0.80
                    University of North Florida 0.80
                    University of Massachusetts Amherst 0.80
                    University of Virginia-Main Campus 0.80
                    Indiana University (HPS) 0.78
                    University of Windsor 0.78
                    The Ohio State University-Main Campus 0.78
                    Average 0.77
                    Stanford University 0.76
                    University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 0.76
                    Ohio University-Main Campus 0.75
                    University of California-Los Angeles 0.75
                    Fordham University 0.75
                    University of California-Davis 0.75
                    University of Rochester 0.75
                    Duquesne University 0.75
                    University of California, Berkeley 0.75
                    Loyola University Chicago 0.75
                    Stony Brook University 0.75
                    University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 0.75
                    Cornell University 0.73
                    Washington University in St. Louis 0.73
                    Colorado State University 0.73
                    University of Cincinnati-Main Campus 0.73
                    Vanderbilt University 0.71
                    New School for Social Research 0.71
                    University of Toronto 0.70
                    San Jose State University 0.70
                    University of Manitoba 0.70
                    Texas Tech University 0.67
                    University of Houston 0.67
                    Claremont Graduate University 0.67
                    Arizona State University 0.67
                    Emory University 0.67
                    Indiana University-Bloomington 0.67
                    University of Alberta 0.65
                    University of Washington-Seattle Campus 0.64
                    DePaul University 0.63
                    University of Guelph 0.63
                    Temple University 0.63
                    University of Illinois at Chicago 0.62
                    University of Georgia 0.62
                    Virginia Tech 0.60
                    Florida State University 0.60
                    University of Toledo 0.60
                    Kent State University at Kent 0.60
                    University of Waterloo 0.55
                    SUNY at Binghamton 0.55
                    Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 0.54
                    University of Utah 0.50
                    McMaster University 0.50
                    Eastern Michigan University 0.25
                    San Francisco State University 0.25
                       

                    Tenure-Track:

                    • Lots of schools only have men in TT positions: University of Mississippi, Gonzaga University, Carnegie Mellon University, University of Miami, University of South Florida-Main Campus, University of California-San Diego, Northern Illinois University, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Duquesne University, Colorado State University, Vanderbilt University, Texas Tech University, DePaul University, University of Illinois at Chicago, Virginia Tech, Florida State University, University of Waterloo, SUNY at Binghamton, University of Utah, McMaster University, Eastern Michigan University, San Francisco State University
                    • Several schools have only women in TT positions: William Marsh Rice University, Purdue University-West Lafayette, University of Pittsburgh (HPS), New York University, University of British Columbia (UBC), University of Virginia-Main Campus, Arizona State University, University of Georgia
                    • On average, 63% of TT faculty are men.
                    School RatioMenTTToAllTT
                    University of Mississippi 1.00
                    Gonzaga University 1.00
                    Carnegie Mellon University 1.00
                    University of Miami 1.00
                    University of South Florida-Main Campus 1.00
                    University of California-San Diego 1.00
                    Northern Illinois University 1.00
                    University of Nebraska-Lincoln 1.00
                    Duquesne University 1.00
                    Colorado State University 1.00
                    Vanderbilt University 1.00
                    Texas Tech University 1.00
                    DePaul University 1.00
                    University of Illinois at Chicago 1.00
                    Virginia Tech 1.00
                    Florida State University 1.00
                    University of Waterloo 1.00
                    SUNY at Binghamton 1.00
                    University of Utah 1.00
                    McMaster University 1.00
                    Eastern Michigan University 1.00
                    San Francisco State University 1.00
                    University of Tennessee-Knoxville 0.83
                    Boston University 0.83
                    Princeton University 0.83
                    Boston College 0.80
                    University of Notre Dame 0.75
                    University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 0.75
                    University of California-Los Angeles 0.75
                    University of Houston 0.73
                    Catholic University of America 0.71
                    Fordham University 0.71
                    Massachusetts Institute of Technology 0.67
                    Texas A & M University 0.67
                    Bowling Green State University-Main Campus 0.67
                    Georgia State University 0.67
                    University of Wisconsin-Madison 0.67
                    Tufts University 0.67
                    University of Southern California 0.67
                    University of Hawaii at Manoa 0.67
                    Stanford University 0.67
                    University of Rochester 0.67
                    University of Cincinnati-Main Campus 0.67
                    University of Alberta 0.67
                    University of Arizona 0.64
                    Average 0.63
                    University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) 0.60
                    Michigan State University 0.60
                    University of North Florida 0.60
                    University of Texas at Austin 0.50
                    Rutgers University-New Brunswick 0.50
                    University of California-Riverside 0.50
                    Louisiana State University 0.50
                    Syracuse University 0.50
                    Dalhousie University 0.50
                    Saint Louis University-Main Campus 0.50
                    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 0.50
                    Johns Hopkins University 0.50
                    University of Massachusetts Amherst 0.50
                    University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 0.50
                    University of California, Berkeley 0.50
                    Loyola University Chicago 0.50
                    University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 0.50
                    New School for Social Research 0.50
                    University of Toronto 0.50
                    University of Manitoba 0.50
                    Indiana University-Bloomington 0.50
                    Temple University 0.50
                    University of Toledo 0.50
                    Kent State University at Kent 0.50
                    Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 0.50
                    Emory University 0.40
                    Duke University 0.33
                    Brandeis University 0.33
                    Loyola Marymount University 0.33
                    Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 0.33
                    The Ohio State University-Main Campus 0.33
                    Cornell University 0.33
                    Washington University in St. Louis 0.33
                    University of Washington-Seattle Campus 0.33
                    William Marsh Rice University 0.00
                    Purdue University-West Lafayette 0.00
                    University of Pittsburgh (HPS) 0.00
                    New York University 0.00
                    University of British Columbia (UBC) 0.00
                    University of Virginia-Main Campus 0.00
                    Arizona State University 0.00
                    University of Georgia 0.00

                    Non-Tenure-Track:

                    • Nearly half (29/61) of the schools only have men in non-TT positions.
                    • Only four schools have only women in non-TT positions: Stony Brook University, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Indiana University-Bloomington, Duke University
                    • The percentage of men in Non-TT positions to all Non-TT positions is 72%.
                    School RatioMenNonTTToAllNonTT
                    University of Wyoming 1.00
                    Ohio University-Main Campus 1.00
                    Gonzaga University 1.00
                    University of California-San Diego 1.00
                    Texas Tech University 1.00
                    University of Waterloo 1.00
                    University of Utah 1.00
                    McMaster University 1.00
                    San Francisco State University 1.00
                    University of California-Los Angeles 1.00
                    University of Houston 1.00
                    Catholic University of America 1.00
                    Fordham University 1.00
                    Texas A & M University 1.00
                    Bowling Green State University-Main Campus 1.00
                    University of Rochester 1.00
                    University of Cincinnati-Main Campus 1.00
                    University of Alberta 1.00
                    University of Pittsburgh (Philosophy) 1.00
                    University of North Florida 1.00
                    Syracuse University 1.00
                    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 1.00
                    University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 1.00
                    University of Toledo 1.00
                    Kent State University at Kent 1.00
                    Emory University 1.00
                    Brandeis University 1.00
                    University of British Columbia (UBC) 1.00
                    University of Georgia 1.00
                    Stanford University 0.88
                    Colorado State University 0.79
                    University of Windsor 0.75
                    Dominican School of Philosophy & Theology 0.75
                    Temple University 0.75
                    Arizona State University 0.75
                    University of Tennessee-Knoxville 0.73
                    University of Toronto 0.73
                    Average 0.72
                    Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus 0.71
                    Northern Illinois University 0.67
                    Boston College 0.67
                    Georgia State University 0.67
                    Michigan State University 0.67
                    University of California, Berkeley 0.67
                    Cornell University 0.67
                    San Jose State University 0.63
                    Carnegie Mellon University 0.60
                    Duquesne University 0.60
                    Tufts University 0.60
                    University of Texas at Austin 0.60
                    Oklahoma State University-Main Campus 0.60
                    San Diego State University 0.57
                    University of Wisconsin-Madison 0.50
                    Dalhousie University 0.50
                    University of Washington-Seattle Campus 0.50
                    New York University 0.43
                    University of California-Santa Cruz 0.33
                    Stony Brook University 0.00
                    University of Nebraska-Lincoln 0.00
                    Indiana University-Bloomington 0.00
                    Duke University 0.00

                     

                    Further Information

                    Visit our other reports on the APA 2013 Graduate Guide’s data

                    Visit our other philosophy placement reports based on each school’s placement data

                    pr_phd4 Graduate Student Philosophy Placement Records 

                    pr_terminalma_thumb2

                     Terminal MA Placement Report

                    pr_prestige_thumb2

                     The “Prestige” Report

                    pr_contential[5] The Continental Philosophy Report

                    If you have any suggestions about how to make this report better, or would like to report updates to the APA 2013 Graduate Guide to include in this report, please send me an email.  Also, contact the APA directly for more information about this data.

                    Thanks,

                    Andy Carson
                    pn_logo16x16_thumb1Philosophy News

                     

                    We’d like to thank Amy E. Ferrer, Executive Director, The American Philosophical Association, University of Delaware, for approving the use of this data, providing useful feedback, and for approving these reports for publication.

                    Liar, Lunatic, or Lord?: A Reconstruction

                    In this post, Andy Carson presents what he believes is a more nuanced reconstruction of C.S. Lewis’ famous “Liar, Lunatic, or Lord?” argument. He attempts to show that the argument is valid and he offers some short defenses of the controversial premises and against objections in an effort to show that the argument is sound.

                    image

                    I present here what I take to be a more nuanced reconstruction of C.S. Lewis’ famous “Liar, Lunatic, or Lord?” argument.

                     

                    The Argument

                    1. Either Jesus claimed He was God or He didn’t. (Tautology)

                    2. If Jesus claimed to be God, He was either correct or incorrect. (Assume-no other possibilities exist)

                    3.  If Jesus was correct in His claim, then He is God.  (Definitionally true from His claim to be God)

                    4.  If Jesus was incorrect in His claim, then He is either a liar or crazy. (Assume-no other possibilities exist)

                    5.  Jesus was not a liar. (Reasonable support)

                    6.  Jesus was not crazy. (Reasonable support)

                    7. If Jesus did not claim to be God, then His disciples claimed He was God (Assume-no other possibilities exist)

                    8. If His disciples claimed He was God, then they were correct or incorrect.  (Assume-no other possibilities exist)

                    9. If His disciples were correct, then Jesus is God. (Assume-no other possibilities exist)

                    10. If His disciples were incorrect, then they were either liars or crazy. (Assume-no other possibilities exist)

                    11. His disciples were not liars. (Reasonable support)

                    12.  His disciples were not crazy. (Reasonable support)

                    13.  Jesus is not a liar and Jesus is not crazy (5,6, Conjunction)

                    14.  It is not the case that Jesus was incorrect in His claim (4,13, MT)

                    15. If Jesus claimed to be God, He was correct (2,14)

                    16. His disciples were not crazy and His disciples were not liars (11,12, Conjunction)

                    17. His disciples were not incorrect (10, 16, MT)

                    18. If His disciples claimed He was God, then they were correct (8, 17)

                    19.  If Jesus claimed to be God, then He is God (3, 15)

                    20. If His disciples claimed He was God, then Jesus is God (18, 9)

                    21. If Jesus did not claim to be God, then Jesus is God (20, 7)

                    22. Jesus is God or Jesus is God (1, 19, 21)

                    23. Jesus is God (22, Simplification)

                     

                    Defense

                    The argument is valid.  Is it sound?  The premises which I think need defending are 5, 6, 11, and 12. Here are some brief (although not exhaustive or conclusive) defenses:

                    Defense of 5:

                    Jesus did not appear to be a liar. It is doubtful that he would choose to undergo crucifixion rather than go back on his claims if He was lying. He would have nothing to gain by continuing to lie at that point.  So we can conclude that he was not lying.

                    Defense of 6:

                    Jesus did not appear to be crazy. The stories told about him present him as a rather smart, wise, engaging, thoughtful, and loving person. Apart from his claim to be divine, he does not appear to say or do anything else that would lead us to believe he was insane. I would think that if he were insane, this would manifest in other ways besides calling himself God. Certainly it seems that his followers and close friends would not have chosen to die believing what he had taught them if they had suspected that he was crazy. So we can conclude that he was not crazy.

                    Defense of 11:

                    It is doubtful that his followers were liars. They believed he was divine based on their belief in his resurrection, based on the miracles he had performed, and his teachings and example. Nearly all of them died for their beliefs, having given up all claim to worldly possessions and power. They had nothing to gain by lying about Jesus, and clearly, by their actions, they believed what Jesus had said to be true. So we can conclude that they were not liars.

                    Defense of 12:

                    It is doubtful that his followers were crazy.  Even if some of them had been crazy, surely not all of them were crazy. Based on their writings and what we know about these men, they all (or most) appear to be sane.  And those who saw them and talked to them were convinced by them to follow Jesus as well, even to the point of death. So we can conclude that they were not (all) crazy.

                     

                    Objections

                    Against 4:

                    Jesus isn’t a liar or lunatic or Lord. He was simply mistaken. Daniel Howard-Snyder makes this objection. The gist of his argument is that Jesus was simply mistaken in his claim to be divine. We are to imagine that we know Jesus to be a wise and loving person that we have never known to do wrong. We can also imagine that he had very good reasons to believe he was divine (e.g., his parents told him he was God, he had people around him that supported his belief, etc.). Would we conclude that he was a liar? No. Would we conclude that he was crazy? Likely not. But we might still think that he is wrong in his claim to be divine. We might say that Jesus was a great moral teacher instead, that he may have made some false claims perhaps, but he wasn’t crazy or a liar. Just mistaken.

                    Against 5 and 11:

                    Some people in fact do go all the way for something they know to be a lie. Maybe they care more about reputation and fame, so much so that they’d rather die or face complete failure than admit that they had lied. Hence, one can’t simply say that since Jesus and his followers faced death for their claims that they must have been telling the truth.

                    Against 6:

                    If Jesus was not God, then by the fact that he believed he was God is grounds for his being crazy. Jesus could only be considered sane if in fact he was God (if you believe that falsely believing you’re God is grounds for calling someone insane). If that is the case, then it seems we can’t use his supposed sanity for establishing that he was God, for we must already believe him to be divine in order to avoid calling him insane. Establishing the fact that Jesus was not crazy is supposed to be used as a ground for demonstrating that he was who he said he was (God). But you can only establish the truth of that premise if in fact he was God. It’s a circular claim.

                     

                    Response

                    Response 4:

                    Howard-Snyder notes some responses in his article. One which seems compelling to me is that a person who was wise and good wouldn’t claim to be divine. That is, one cannot combine a mistaken claim to divinity with an unsurpassed wisdom and goodness. While not logically contradictory, this would present a very unusual and improbable circumstance, for it seems that a very wise and sane person would know that he or she was not divine if in fact he or she was not divine. To be fair, Howard-Snyder does offer some objections, but I still think there is something to this response. I have a hard time shaking the idea that someone could be both sane and mistakenly claim to be divine. In fact, mistakenly claiming to be divine seems like it could be taken to be a prime example of lunacy. So this objection doesn’t grab me, but maybe it works for you.

                    Response 5 and 11:

                    I have a hard time believing that Jesus and most of his immediate followers would choose to be crucified for something they all knew to be a lie. I know I wouldn’t, and I bet you wouldn’t either. In fact, people often lie to avoid punishment and torture. It is easier for me to believe that they are all crazy or deluded. I can understand how someone would choose to be crucified for something he or she believed incorrectly to be true. It just seems to me that the nature of the death each person faced is so extreme that I find it very doubtful that someone would continue to lie at that point.

                    Response 6:

                    This is a fair response, and indeed, the original argument relies on this intuitive pull. I suppose I am ok with this. If the argument forces you to conclude that Jesus was either a liar, lunatic, or Lord, and if you opt for lunatic, then half the battle has been won for the theist apologist. Now he just has to convince you that Jesus wasn’t crazy (and so must be Lord). Between the two options, lunatic or Lord, I sketched an argument that Jesus wasn’t crazy, since his craziness would likely manifest in other ways besides calling himself divine. And I think that on the basis of the testimony of others who would be able to judge his character and sanity, since they did not take him to be crazy (particularly in their attitudes after his supposed resurrection), we can also conclude that he wasn’t crazy, despite the fact that he claimed to be divine. But I admit that this is a weaker response.

                     

                    Conclusion

                    The argument is valid and I have offered some short defenses of the controversial premises and against objections in an effort to show that the argument is sound. Even if you don’t agree with the argument, the original intent of the argument was to exclude the possibility that Jesus was merely a nice, wise, moral guy. The point is to force a confrontation with Jesus as either being a liar, lunatic, or Lord. Some say he is a liar. Some say he is crazy. Others call him Lord. “But what about you?” he asked. “Who do you say I am?” (Matthew 16:15)

                     

                    Note: for Howard-Snyder’s full article on this argument, click here: HOWWJM.pdf (194.5KB)

                    Continental Report Updated

                    The Continental report now includes 16 philosophy departments that specialize in Continental philosophy. Most recently added are SUNY Binghamton and Texas A&M. The data for the University of Oregon has also been updated. Other recent school additions include Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, University of Memphis, and University of New Mexico.

                    The Continental report now includes 16 philosophy departments that specialize in Continental philosophy.  Most recently added are SUNY Binghamton and Texas A&M.  The data for the University of Oregon has also been updated. Other recent school additions include Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, University of Memphis, and University of New Mexico.  View the latest version of the report here.

                    Philosophy as a Career: Think Long and Hard About Thinking Long and Hard

                    Studying philosophy can train your mind, help you reason, and almost certainly enrich your life. But what can you do with a degree? Hear from three philosophy majors who now work in other fields on the value of their degree, the pitfalls in pursuing full-time work in philosophy, and some recommendations on how to navigate the often muddy career waters for philosophers.

                    Adam-Smith-Monument-and-St-GilMost of us who work on Philosophy News have a degree in philosophy, whether at the undergraduate or graduate level.  However, most of us are not in academia anymore.  Here are some stories about those of us who left professional philosophy and academia for careers in other fields.  At the end are some tips for how to prepare for these careers while you are studying philosophy, since you ultimately may decide not to pursue philosophy professionally or work in academia. Also, be sure to check out our popular Placement Reports for more information as you think about pursuing full-time work in philosophy.

                     

                    Paul, Adjunct Professor of Philosophy at Seattle Pacific University, Senior Program Manager at Microsoft

                    While I do teach philosophy at the college level as an adjunct and have done so since leaving graduate school, I began studying philosophy well before I entered graduate school and continue to study philosophy ardently. It is not only due to my training but because of my deep passion and love for the discipline that I am a philosopher in the truest sense of that word. So I begin my comments with a complete rejection of the idea that one must be teaching or working full time in philosophy in order to be rightly called a philosopher. In fact, I'm inclined to think that the amateur (a person who performs his or her craft for the love of it) may define what it means to be a philosopher in ways that the word "professional" may in fact ultimately undermine.

                    This also means that if one is a philosopher in the sense I mean, it would be impossible that philosophy does not only prepare its students for whatever he or she does to earn a living but should permeate every aspect of that person, impacting how he or she thinks and lives. This certainly has been the case for me. I began reading philosophy out of an overwhelming desire to understand problems I was encountering in my own epistemology particularly around the religious beliefs in which I was raised. My reading was driven by questions and my study of philosophy remains largely driven by questions and an insatiable desire to get more near to the truth. In reading philosophy, talking with other philosophers, and finally studying philosophy at the graduate level, I learned how both  to better shape my questions and rigorously construct what may begin to resemble answers. It is here that the cross-disciplinary value of philosophy began for me.

                    I entered graduate school with plenty of debt incurred from my undergraduate studies and that debt compounded while in my Master's program. I had to work full time in grad school to support my family and leveraged my hobby in computers to find gainful employment at small consulting firm. While learning metaphysics and epistemology, I was also learning object-oriented programming and software automation. Towards the end of my graduate program, I got a call from a relative at Microsoft and eventually was offered a job doing entry-level build automation for the Interactive Media group (which I largely took at the time to pay down some debt). Three kids later, I ended up building a career at Microsoft eventually getting into full software development and management. Philosophy has served me all along the way.

                    When working at a large corporation like Microsoft, solving problems becomes an essential part of daily life. I use the skills I learn studying philosophy to break down problems, arguments, assertions, data, and scenarios into smaller parts, weight those parts on a scale ranging from very important to irrelevant, and then prioritize what needs attention and what can be set aside. The analytic side of philosophy is all about defining terms, establishing valid relationships between those terms, and attempting to figure out the truth value of the concept those terms represent. This discipline has helped me navigate a complex environment like the one found at Microsoft more easily. Logic and epistemology have been critical for learning the types of disciplines that foster success here.

                    But philosophy has also helped me be a better people manager. I use concepts and skills I've gained from studying epistemology (and even philosophy of mind which is a close relative of psychology) each and every day in working with people. By better understanding my own epistemic makeup—how I form beliefs, how I should think about certainty, how beliefs translate into knowledge, and what truth may mean—I've found I have better insight into the epistemology of the people that report to me and with whom I work. I can better distinguish a truth claim from a belief or personal opinion; the bullshit from the pay dirt. I can more easily recognize formal fallacies in arguments and informal fallacies when passions run high. Of course recognizing these things doesn't always mean I know what to do with them. But recognition, I've found, is half the battle.

                    There have been some good articles written on how philosophy can help those pursing careers in business and other disciplines and others that explain how philosophy majors tend to fare better in business than those studying other subjects. Here are a couple to whet the appetite: 9 Famous Execs Who Majored In Philosophy on Business Insider, and this widely published and disseminated report on how philosophy majors fare on the GRE compared to other disciplines. There are more articles linked below in the "For Further Reading" section.

                    The true student of philosophy will become a better, more rigorous thinker. Any person pursuing a career path that requires problem solving, deep interaction with other humans, the need to break down arguments and truth claims, or an ability to look both at the big picture and the finer details, will benefit from a formal education in philosophy. Of course, life in general requires all these things so the study of philosophy could benefit anyone. As Daniel Robinson has said, "the philosophical mind is the human mind that takes itself seriously."

                    I wrote this article for Philosophy News a while ago that summarizes the value philosophy has for me.

                     

                    Andy, Senior Data Scientist At Virtual Institution Resources

                    I came to late academic philosophy late in my undergraduate studies.  I was a double major in mathematics and political science, but only discovered philosophy my junior year.  Having become hooked, I applied for masters programs in philosophy with the intention of going on to the PhD level and to become a professor.  During my first year of graduate studies, I became more aware of the job market and what lay ahead of me if I wished to continue studying philosophy at the professional level.  I also discovered that, although I enjoyed philosophy, I didn’t love it like my fellow graduate students did.  I pursued it for my own sake, for my own purposes, and not for its own sake.  Faced with the prospect of many years of graduate study, followed by a long struggle to find a tenure-track position with little financial incentive, even at the peak of my career, I began to look elsewhere. I knew I could still study philosophy on my own, and that would be enough for me.

                    Discussing my situation with a close college friend, he suggested I intern with his dad’s database consulting company, VIR, over the summer.  As I began my internship, I discovered that object oriented programming was simply applied logic; SQL querying was simply applied set theory.  Given my mathematics and logic background, the transition to learning SQL and understanding database design was relatively smooth. When I returned for my second year of graduate study in philosophy, I took introductory C++ programming and continued to read about database design and SQL querying on my own.

                    Once I graduated, I joined VIR full time.  Through a mutual friend, I was contracted to a Microsoft project as the database designer and administrator.  While continuing to develop my skills on the job, I enrolled in a certificate program in Data Science through the University of Washington.  Through this program I learned more about database design and administration, Business Intelligence, data mining, and predictive analytics.  Now, having graduated from the program and through my experience on the job and continued learning off the job, I have become marketable as a database administrator, business intelligence consultant, and data scientist, all of which are currently in demand.  Thus, I would say I have been able to successfully transition from the academic world to the business/technology world, all in a very short time and with little prior experience and knowledge. 

                    I am very grateful for my philosophy background, and I would still get my master’s in philosophy if I had to it all over again.   It was a great experience and I learned an incredible amount about myself and the world of ideas. My graduate studies have been incredibly helpful to me in my current career.  My thinking is clearer and sharper.  My writing is more persuasive and focused.  I can see more clearly how ideas relate in business discussions and how to isolate the relevant points of discussion and debate.  Getting a degree in philosophy is definitely not a waste of time; it is rewarding for it’s own sake, regardless of what you do afterwards.  Nevertheless, I am very happy pursuing my current career, and I am thankful I can still continue to study and do philosophy on the side.

                     

                    Mike, Associate, Academic Research at the Charles Koch Foundation

                    I am a second generation philosophy student. My father entered the profession in the mid-seventies. I pursued both an undergraduate and an MA in philosophy. I have also taught for several years as an adjunct faculty member. I can't claim to be the final expert on whether or not one should study philosophy, but my experience provides me with what hopefully is an interesting perspective on the field. 

                    The good news is that if you enjoy philosophy, if you enjoy school and you have good study habits, you will enjoy the experience of graduate school in philosophy. You will spend much of your time in the company of people who enjoy philosophy as much as you do, and you will leave a graduate degree in philosophy with the type of analytical training that prepares you for challenges in just about any other field from computer science to the legal profession. 

                    The bad news? Well, sadly, there is a lot of it. You won't suffer alone in graduate school, but you will suffer! You will need to be more self-directed, conscientious, and disciplined. If you don't have these traits already you can learn them in graduate school, but the process might be painful. And the pain doesn't stop there. The road after graduation, whether at the PhD or the MA level, is not as clear or straight as one would hope. 

                    There are not many jobs in philosophy, and most jobs in philosophy (and the academy as a whole) are course-by-course part time (i.e., adjunct) positions. These positions are unsustainable for the individual working them. The pay per course can range from $1,800-$3,000. To work anything close to a living wage would require working for at least two, if not three, separate schools. You will also have no benefits or retirement plan. All this is assuming that you can secure that many courses from three different institutions and make sure that they fit within your schedule. Added to this, adjunct faculty are extremely marginal and can find themselves without work at relatively short notice. That was what happened to me when one my schools informed me that because of the requirements of the Affordable Care Act they would not be able to offer me any more courses for the year (as the university did not want me qualifying as a 'full time' worker). 

                    In contrast, my new job at the Charles Koch Foundation, a liberty-advancing private foundation, has been very fulfilling. The foundation provides greater social interaction on a daily basis through collaborative work. It rewards hard work, financially and in other ways, and it encourages the development of new skills and capacities. Even the small things that most people take for granted are deeply appreciated. I have my own desk, a work-provided computer, plenty of office supplies, and free coffee. I had none of these as an adjunct. Finally, the environment is one of intellectual curiosity and continued learning.

                    Since we are often considering grant proposals from academics, my background in the academy has been very useful in assessing the merits of the proposals. And given the nature of my work, I am able to continue my philosophical pursuits and studies through my work, even though I am no longer in professional academia. Thus, I have been able to transition to a ‘normal job’, with all of its benefits, without having to give up my academic interests.

                     

                    Summary of Advice

                    Here is a summary of the lessons and advice gathered from the stories above:

                    1. Consider carefully whether you need to study philosophy in an academic setting, and think even more carefully about pursuing it as a profession.

                    Philosophical study is incredibly rewarding, especially at the graduate level.  You will learn a lot about yourself and the world, and you will also gain valuable writing, thinking, and analytical skills that can be applied to any situation.  And, as you know from our stories, you do not need to (and perhaps may not want to) pursue philosophy as a profession in academia.  So one can still enjoy the fruits of academic philosophical study without fully committing to academia as a career.

                    However, graduate study in philosophy may not be for everyone interested in philosophy, particularly given other factors like the current job market in academia.  As one of us states, “While I do recognize the great personal value in the [philosophy] education I received, the future economic prospects are so utterly dire that if I had to choose over again I would pursue a degree in business or marketing.”  Other degrees are more readily marketable, and with limited time and resources, these other degrees may be a better choice for some people, particularly those concerned about future job prospects.

                    By following the advice below, a middle route between full devotion to academic philosophy and complete rejection of it, one can mitigate the difficult “future economic prospects” of pursuing a graduate degree in philosophy and provide for yourself a parachute of sorts if you choose another career outside of academia.  Remember also that, if you are committed to philosophy and would like the occasion for advanced study that graduate school provides, consider pursuing it as a hobby and not as a profession. Many graduate courses are offered at night and working slowly towards an MA while having a 'day job' is certainly doable.  And there are always plenty of books, articles, and blogs to read in your spare time to keep you doing philosophy.

                    2. Have a Backup plan

                    Suppose you do not make it as a professional academic philosopher, or you change your mind about what you would like to do professionally.  What then?  What else would you do?  If you do not have a backup plan and adequately prepare for the implementation of that plan, the transition from academia to the business world may be very rough.  As one of us has experienced, “You will likely be type-cast by HR departments as an academic (not a good thing) and will be seen as lacking valuable skills that are required in the business world. When you do secure a position it is likely that you will be at 'square one' in a new career which may not value your extensive years of schooling.”  To avoid this fate, figure out what other sorts of career paths you would be interested in pursuing and, while still working towards your dream of being a professional philosopher, also prepare yourself professionally for other options that may be more appealing or necessary as time moves on.

                    3.  Network, network, network!

                    Most of us are in the work we are currently in thanks to someone we knew who knew someone else who knew someone else… who needed someone like us for a job.  A personal recommendation from an intermediary that knows both the employer and potential employee is incredibly valuable in terms of securing a position.  Talk to your parent’s friends, your friend’s parents, and your friend’s friends that work in fields you are interested in.  Learn how they got to be where they are and get to know them personally.  Ask them to keep an eye open for an opening wherever they work. 

                    4. Take classes within philosophy that will look help you succeed in business, technology, and other related fields

                    Use philosophy classes to develop skills that will be useful outside of philosophy.  Work on your analytical writing by taking classes that will require you to write a lot.  Take as many logic classes as you can.  Select classes that could apply to another field (e.g., environmental ethics for biological work) and write on topics that could help you learn more about that field (e.g., political philosophy for government work).

                    5. Minor in a more marketable field in addition to your philosophy major

                    If you have the time and resources, minor in a readily marketable field.  A business, communications, marketing, mathematics, computer science, accounting, economics, or advertising minor will round out your skill set as you enter into the work force.  Interdisciplinary work is all the rage these days, so having a diverse educational background will help you to stand out.

                    6. Take classes outside your degree:  if you can’t minor in another more immediately marketable field, take individual classes if you can while still in your undergraduate or graduate programs.  Here are some classes we recommend:

                    Computer science:

                    • Introductory Programming (to C++, C#, Java, Python, or some other object oriented programming language)
                    • Database Systems and Management
                    • Any class related to Office software (e.g., Excel)
                    • HTML and JavaScript

                    Mathematics:

                    • Statistics
                    • Calculus
                    • Linear Algebra
                    • Discrete Mathematics
                    • Number Theory
                    • Mathematical Modeling

                    Business:

                    • Business Finance
                    • Decision Making
                    • Management
                    • Program and Project Management
                    • Business Planning
                    • Marketing
                    • Advertising

                    Economics:

                    • Microeconomics
                    • Macroeconomics

                    Communications:

                    • Argumentation
                    • Public Speaking
                    • Marketing

                    Accounting:

                    • Financial Accounting
                    • Managerial Accounting

                    7. Take online or continuing education courses:

                    If you have already graduated, continue your learning by taking online courses or continuing education courses through your local universities.  You can take classes individually (like those above), or you can earn certificates, degrees, and certifications.  Here are some links:

                     8. Buy and read used textbooks:

                    Get and read used textbooks on subjects related to the classes up above.  You can get great deals on used textbooks that are only a few years old from online book sellers.  Teach yourself in your spare time.

                     

                    Conclusion

                    By following this advice, you can continue to study philosophy, at the undergraduate or graduates levels, and prepare yourself for the business and technology world. This way, no matter what your ultimate decision is about pursuing philosophy professionally, you will be prepared.

                    For Further Reading

                    "In a New Generation of College Students, Many Opt for the Life Examined", "Philosophers Find the Degree Pays Off in Life And in Work", "To Beat the Market, Hire a Philosopher" at the New York Times

                    "I think, therefore I earn" at The Guardian

                    "Philosophy is Back in Business" at BusinessWeek

                    "Learn Philosophy" at US News and World Report

                    A nice list from a blogger in Canada of other articles and information on the value of a philosophy degree